2024 Conference Program

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Subject to changes – please check back regularly for updates!

 Download the Program (Large PDF: 9.7 MB; Small PDF: 1.9 MB)—last updated 05/07/2024
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(Presentations marked with an asterisk are being considered for the Barbara Lawrence Award.)

Thursday April 25, 2024

10:30 to 12:00 (Thursday)
Auditorium North

I. Cassava and Cacao

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
11:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Wooding
, Stephen - University of California, Merced
Rubén Peña
, César - Amazon Scientific Research Support

Yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz; also called cassava or manioc) is a key subsistence crop throughout the Amazon basin. Archeological and genetic evidence suggest that it was initially domesticated ~10,000 years ago on the southern margin of the region and then dispersed, diversifying under human pressure into myriad landraces. However, the specific influences mediating landrace development remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to clarify them in a field investigation of cultural and biological variation on five tributaries of the Upper Peruvian Amazon. We identified 45 landraces, which growers propagated clonally, a strategy maintaining landrace integrity. Landraces were also phenotypically distinct and assigned traditional names, reflecting different planned uses. In addition, while most phenotypic measures were statistically associated, nutritional content was independent of others, and may be under independent selective pressure. Finally, we found little evidence of geographic population structure, a pattern likely explained by transportation of landraces by growers.

11:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Charles
, Caitlyn
Ormsby
, Alison - Adventure Scientists

Research has been conducted about the health benefits of cacao, indigenous uses, and psychoactive effects. However, minimal research has been completed regarding the implications of high-dose cacao consumption in interpersonal settings. People globally who run and attend 'cacao ceremonies' claim that cacao's psychoactive effects lead, in many users, to euphoria, emotional openness, and disinhibition. They assert that these effects make cacao an excellent addition to reflection and connection-building activities done in groups or in pairs; however, claims need to be researched and field tested. If validated, cacao could prove to be a useful complement to a range of interpersonal activities, from corporate team building to community building, to applications for romantic relationships or even therapy. A wealth of anecdotal reports support this notion, though they could very well be the result of confirmation bias. This presentation will present literature background on this topic.

 

10:30 to 12:00 (Thursday)
Auditorium South

II. Politics of the Urban Body: Bioarcheological Studies of Ancient state

Session Type: 
Oral
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Bridget Bey - Washington University in St. Louis, Sewasew Assefa

Session Description

The application of multiscalar approaches to the study of urban societies (through the lens of diet, life history, reproduction, ect.) helps explore the causal relationship between ancient states and ancient people. Shifts in state power affect institutional structures, such as politics, economics, religions, but also alter important aspects of everyday life, such as social hierarchy, movement, labor, and diet. Urban environments can create or exacerbate physiological stresses resulting from the nested relationships between the individual, their immediate environment, and the larger sociopolitical climate. The interplay of different social identities at the individual level is associated with structural inequalities that produce and maintain social, political, and economic disparities as well as their subsequent health outcomes. The bioarcheology of urban societies provides a framework to connect the material record of the state with the lived experience embodied in human skeletal remains and associated cultural material. In this session, we present recent scholarship on the bioarcheology of ancient urban states from Peru, Kenya, China, and Egypt.

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
10:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Haileselassie Assefa
, Sewasew - Washington University in St. Louis

Urban environments can create or exacerbate physiological stresses resulting from high population density, sanitation issues, and the more explicit socioeconomic gradient limiting access to resources. Moreover, the broader processes that lead to urbanization shape diet and health of those in the urban environment but are experienced differently according to age, gender, status and religion. Urbanization of the East African Coast (EAC) during the Iron Age (1st c. BCE – 10th c. CE) and Islamic periods (10th – 15th c. CE) is associated with an increasingly hierarchical society impacting resource distribution. By thinking about the EAC, through the lens of embodiment, I examine the effect of sociopolitical changes on the health of individuals of various identities including age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Individuals from Mtwapa, Kenya included in this study provide a rare opportunity to understand the heterogeneity of health outcomes in the EAC at the individual, local and regional levels.

10:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Bey
, Bridget - Washington University in St. Louis

Around the world, the shift towards more urban environments coincided with an increase in childhood morbidity and mortality, which consequently impacted rates of growth and development throughout childhood and adolescence. To analyze the effect of urbanization on puberty in the late pre-Hispanic Andes (800-1500 CE), I explore the relationship between development and stress/disease patterns from three Peruvian skeletal collections. I present data on 217 individuals, 5-30 years old, from Omo M10, Chen Chen M1, and Estuquiña M6. These three populations broadly represent the sociocultural contexts of the late pre-Hispanic Andes—hierarchical social organization, dense semi-urban populations, and maize-based agriculture—two population types (highlanders and highland descents), and two chronological periods (political stability and regional conflict). Evaluation of these three samples, alongside an urban Medieval Sample, will help us better understand differences related to childhood morbidity, growth, and development in the pre-Hispanic Andes and across global populations.

11:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Jiang
, Han - Washington University in St. Louis

Past studies on topics of ancient health in Northwest China tend to focus on the consequence of agricultural practices or subsistence changes; less attention has been paid to the effects of husbandry on human health. Between the 6th and 2nd millennium BCE, a period witnessing the globalization of foodways and transition from Neolithic to Bronze Age in China, animals domesticated in Southwest and Central Asia were introduced to China and integrated into the local economy in varying ways. Specifically cattle were folded into the existing pig-raising system while sheep/goats were managed within local grazing landscapes in Northwest China. Here, I review the current state of knowledge on human disease landscapes in China between the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age in the context of different husbandry practices. In doing so, I address the localized effects of animal management strategies on human health with a focus on the changing sociopolitical landscape.

11:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Baitzel
, Sarah - Washington University in Saint Louis

Traditional resources related to the human body, such as foodways, medicines and body modifications, underwent profound transformations as a result of urbanization in the past. The transition to urban life resulted in changes to environmental processes (subsistence, disease transmission, pollution) and social dynamics (inequality, labor, kin and gender relations, violence). These intersecting processes left visible marks on the human body that attest to the social and biological stresses experienced by urban residents. In this paper, I review case studies of urban bioarchaeology from around the world to explore how city dwellers in the past drew on traditional resource systems to mitigate the negative impacts of urbanism. What evidence exists for the continued use of deep-time or indigenous practices by urban communities? What do we know about the emergence of new resources related to food or medicine?

10:30 to 12:00 (Thursday)
Meeting Room

III. History and Folklore

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
10:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Farley
, Kate - Missouri Botanical Garden

This study focuses on plants used medicinally for gynecological and reproductive health concerns in the Ozarks, documented in folklore archives. The Ozark plateau is a rugged, hilly region that includes southern Missouri, northwest Arkansas, and small parts of eastern Kansas and Oklahoma. Due to its physical isolation from major population centers, the region’s folk culture—including uses of herbs—drew great interest from American folklore collectors in the first half of the 20th century. This study uses folklore records housed in university and library archives in Missouri and Arkansas to shine light on the way historical Ozarkers used herbs to treat gynecological concerns, including menstrual cramps, treating (or inducing) miscarriage, and childbirth. This study not only allows us a glimpse into the lives of women in the past, but it has particular relevance in a contemporary political climate in which access to reproductive health care is under threat.

11:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Minnis
, Paul - University of Oklahoma
Mattalia
, Giulia - Univeristat Autonoma e Barcelona
Strymets
, Natalyia - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Soukand
, Renata - Ca' Foscari University of Venice

The Holodomor (1932-1933) was a politically driven, genocidal famine that killed millions through starvation and disease, as well as disrupting Ukrainian society and agriculture.Through the analysis of various archival sources, particularly survivor narratives, we obtained information about 70 plants used as famine foods, plants not customarily eaten and those eaten in unusual quantities or ways during the Holodomor. Residual parts of crops represented a large number of these famine foods. A wide range of native plants were also consumed. The general inventory of Ukrainian famine food types is similar to those from other major global famines.

11:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Ezhevskaya
, Anya - Dallas International University

My presentation offers an overview of the role and presence of fungi in Slavic folklore. Mushrooms have for centuries held an important place in the eco-mythology of Slavic peoples. This is evidenced not only by the riddles, proverbs, and folktales such as The War of Mushrooms (Voina Gribov) that refer to fungi, but also by works of fine art and music created over the last two centuries. The intimate, homey relationship that Slavic people have with mushrooms is also revealed through the ubiquitous practices, even into the 21st century, of foraging for fungi, mushroom preservation through fermentation and pickling, and mycophagy. My presentation highlights some of the most notable examples of mycological interplay with Slavic folklore in the past and present and looks forward to changes in the relationship between these peoples and mushrooms in a globalized, hyper-technical world torn by war and cushioned by financial prominence.

11:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Stringer
, David - Indiana University

In this paper, I examine how conditional reasoning (Antecedent > Consequent), as a universal cognitive capacity, drives associations that govern human activities in particular ecosystems. It is well-known that in many Indigenous cultures, people correlate the behavior of plants, animals, or stars with their own planting, hunting, or gathering. However, even in non-Indigenous societies, knowledge of this type is manifested in regional folklore. In the UK, people on the island of Guernsey sing of how blooming foxgloves announce the arrival of the mackerel, and in Warwickshire, the stages of growing elm leaves indicate when to plant barley and kidney beans. In the context of the debate over universals and particulars in folkbiology, I draw on historical and contemporary sources to illuminate how a common cognitive principle drives highly localized ecological associations encoded in folk names, sayings, and songs across a broad range of cultures.

12:15 to 13:15 (Thursday)
Meeting Room

IV. Curators, Keepers, and Sleeping Seeds: How can Historical and Archaeological Seed Collections Contribute to the Revival of Traditional Agriculture?

Session Type: 
Roundtable
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Natalie Mueller - Washington University in St. Louis, Charlie Miksicek

Session Description

Museums and botanical gardens contain a wealth of information about culturally significant plants. They also contain the seeds of these plants, which are considered by many Indigenous people to be living kin. This roundtable discussion will bring together seed keepers and growers who are trying to revive or preserve their communities’ traditional relationships with plants with scientists and curators from various fields to ask: How can these collections of sleeping seeds be awakened?

12:15 to 13:15 (Thursday)
Auditorium South

V. Publishing in Ethnobiology: Trends and New Directions

Session Type: 
Roundtable
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Rick Stepp - University of Florida

Session Description

The Society of Ethnobiology has a robust publishing program with 2 journals and 1 book series. This presentation by the editors of these publications looks at trends in publishing within the society and larger discipline. New areas of interest are explored along with best practices and tips are presented to ensure success in an SoE publication.

13:30 to 15:00 (Thursday)
Auditorium North

VI. Cultural Keystone Places and Historical Ecology (Part 1)

Session Type: 
Oral
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Steve Wolverton - University of North Texas, Chelsey Armstrong, Torben Rick

Session Description

Archaeologists are increasingly engaging local communities through heritage connections to places. For archaeologists, these places stand as sites of study. However, for many local peoples, such places hold significant cultural meaning, what ethnobiologists term cultural keystone places (CKPs). CKPs emphasize the deep connections between people, culture, and the natural world, offering a framework for merging cultural revitalization and environmental restoration. This session comprises examples of research on cultural keystone places from many areas of the world, representing a transition in the field toward recognizing that the future well-being of local peoples and ecosystems relies on connections to CKPs.

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
13:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Wolverton
, Steve - University of North Texas
Armstrong
, Chelsey Geralda - Simon Fraser University
Dombrosky
, Jonathan - Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
Ryan
, Susan C. - Crow Canyon Archaeological Center

Archaeological sites are locations where past activities are physically manifested and defined by presence and density of material culture. This varies depending on the scale of past activities. Artifact absence does not mean a landscape was never a location of past activities. This is problematic in the legal world where Indigenous peoples use archaeological data to document land-use in cultural keystone places. We synthesize data collected by Crow Canyon Archaeological Center over decades to demonstrate variability in abundance of faunal remains from sites dating to A.D. 500-1300 in southwest Colorado. We infer how taphonomic variables explain discovery probability of remains. This data-rich study highlights variability in discovery probability of faunal remains (as one type of material culture) to demonstrate “absence” is possible within a location of past activities. Thus, land claims may require an assessment of discovery probability rather than a simple determination of presence or absence of cultural indicators.

14:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Lepofsky
, Dana - Simon Fraser University
Markey
, Sean - Simon Fraser Univeristy
Team
, The XLAP - XLAP

Historical ecology can be a powerful way to document the history of places with which descent communities strongly connect today. It can also be a powerful tool for re-awakening cultural connections to culturally imbued places. This is particularly so in highly colonized landscapes, where the tangible evidence of long-term Indigenous presence may be less evident. The Xwe’etay/Lasqueti Archaeology Project (www.lasquetiarc.ca) focuses on the historical ecology of one small island in western Canada. It weaves together archaeological data, interviews and archival research on ecological change, ecological mapping, with community-centered outreach that brings together the descendent and settler communities connected to Xwe’etay. We documented a long-term and significant Indigenous occupation of the island. As a result, the connection to Xwe’etay among descendent communities has deepened. For many of the island’s settlers, their connection to this place has also been enriched, including a new understanding of what it means to honor Indigenous heritage.

13:30 to 15:00 (Thursday)
Auditorium South

VII. Urban Ethnobiology

Session Type: 
Oral
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Daniela Shebitz

Session Description

Although it is all too easy to consider humanity as separate from the environment in urban areas, many cities offer unique opportunities to foster community connections through environmental stewardship. Through this session, ethnobiologists located in cities throughout the world will share work revolving around a similar theme: How are urban communities connecting with nature in a disconnected environment? Topics can include community-based conservation, environmental education, urban parks and recreation, immigration/refugee gardens, urban agriculture, and more. These activities work to improve both environmental conditions and human health and well-being.

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
14:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Shebitz
, Daniela - Kean University
Ospina Parra
, Andres - Kean University

The Miyawaki Method of regenerating and rehabilitating forests is increasingly being adopted by urban communities globally. By planting fast-growing groves of native vegetation on vacant urban lots, communities are actively addressing environmental issues including flooding, heat island effects, and biodiversity. There are two objectives to this paper: 1) to present an overall summary of what is being done regarding microforests in formerly redlined communities and 2) to present data that uses soil microbial dynamics and quality as a means of predicting the future success of the microforests in providing suitable environmental conditions for vegetation. We focus on three microforests in urban New Jersey and compare soil and plant dynamics with adjacent un-planted sites (as controls) and an intact forest nearby (as a reference site). Our overall goal is for this paper to serve as a toolkit for other urban communities considering afforestation to combat the environmental effects of urbanization.

13:30 to 15:00 (Thursday)
Meeting Room

VIII. Knowledge Integration/Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
13:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Drew
, Joshua - SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Lawson
, Katherine - SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Ford
, Amanda - The University of the South Pacific
Rubin
, Leah - SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Hughes
, Peter - The University of the South Pacific
Sevakarua
, Waisiki - The University of the South Pacific
Holmes
, Bay - SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Ecosystem services have been a major organizing principle for Conservation Biology for the past two decades. However, the links between the services provided and the actual species that produce those services can vary across and within communities and genders. In this presentation I will discuss the ways members of Indigenous Fijian communities prioritize the ecosystem services provided by mangroves and reefs and then link those priorities to lists of specific species (including medicinal plans and reef fish) that provide those services. Drawing on data gifted from Indigenous knowledge holders we conducted “Mangrove walks” and “fisher follows” to generate lists of species and the ecosystem services they support and discuss how these species lists can be used to structure conservation and management plans. Lastly, we will highlight how the results can be read through the lenses of both gender and multispecies ethnography.

14:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Cannon
, Carrie - Hualapai Tribe

The Hakdagwi:va Peach Springs Chapter of the Arizona Native Plant Society is the very first ever Native American Plant Chapter in Arizona, possibly the country! Formed on the Hualapai Indian Reservation by Natives, the chapter just celebrated its 1 year anniversary. Arizona is actually home to more Indigenous tribal lands than any other state in the country with 27% of the state made up of reservation totaling more than 20 million acres. The ancestral lands of the Hualapai Indian Tribe include a region within the world that is botanically distinctive and rare. Located within the eastern extent of the Mojave, and northern extent of the Sonoran Deserts, present and ancestral lands are situated within a unique bio-region. This presentation will share about the successes of our Native led Peach Springs Chapter of the Arizona Native Plant Society.

15:30 to 17:00 (Thursday)
Auditorium North

IX. Cultural Keystone Places and Historical Ecology (Part 2)

Session Type: 
Oral
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Steve Wolverton - University of North Texas, Chelsey Armstrong, Torben Rick

Session Description

Archaeologists are increasingly engaging local communities through heritage connections to places. For archaeologists, these places stand as sites of study. However, for many local peoples, such places hold significant cultural meaning, what ethnobiologists term cultural keystone places (CKPs). CKPs emphasize the deep connections between people, culture, and the natural world, offering a framework for merging cultural revitalization and environmental restoration. This session comprises examples of research on cultural keystone places from many areas of the world, representing a transition in the field toward recognizing that the future well-being of local peoples and ecosystems relies on connections to CKPs.

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
15:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Grenz
, Jennifer - University of British Columbia

Many places of ancestral and cultural importance to the Quw’utsun Peoples have been recognized by settlers as important contributors to biodiversity. This recognition has resulted in settler-led ecological restoration efforts of cultural keystone places such as Garry Oak Meadows and the Cowichan Bay Estuary. While such efforts are well-intentioned, lack of understanding of pre-colonial baselines and implementaiton of fortress conservation practices have contributed to poor, long-term restoration outcomes. Our research alongside Cowichan Tribes is showing that centering cultural resurgence in restoration planning is a critical methodology that ensures the reciprocal, long-term human-land relationships required for successful outcomes. Our results have broad implications for land restoration that suggest that finding ways to strengthen human relationships to land (Indigenous or not), could provide the commitment and stewardship lands need from us to thrive into the future.

15:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Forste
, Kathleen - Brown University
Pérez-Juez
, Amalia - BU; Institut Menorquí d’Estudis
Smith
, Alexander J. - SUNY Brockport

Menorca, one of the Balearic Islands off the Mediterranean coast of Spain, has multiple UNESCO designations: as a Biosphere Reserve (1993), and as home to an inscription on the World Heritage List, the Prehistoric Sites of Talayotic Menorca (2023). Thus these natural biota and prehistoric archaeological sites are deemed important to modern life – but there is a leap of nearly two millennia from prehistory to today. In this gap, during the medieval period (c. 10th-13th centuries), people developed landuse practices (including irrigation systems) which left traces that endure into the 21st century. We marshal archaeological data to investigate two questions: How can archaeology deepen modern connections to a landscape? Specifically, how can archaeological investigation of the medieval populations contribute to the deep chronology of people stewarding this island landscape? Using the framework of CKP, we connect to themes of memory and identity active in the archaeological research of the region.

16:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Armstrong
, Chelsey Geralda - Simon Fraser University

Historical narratives crafted by heritage power brokers (archaeological consultants, regulators) often limit landscape-scale considerations, and pale in comparison to the referents and scale of histories known among, for example, Gitxsan Wilp (House) territory owners, teachers, and knowledge holders. In reviewing historical-ecological and House-based approaches to heritage conservation in British Columbia, this research will assess the strategies and opportunities involved in re-defining the Lax’yip (territories, waters) as cultural keystone places. We consider keystone places as a potential avenue for non-Gitxsan power brokers to better understand biocultural phenomena as both heritage and historically contingent inheritances.

16:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Field
, Julie - The Ohio State University
McCorriston
, Joy - The Ohio State University
Fisher
, Scott - Hawai'i Land Trust
Frank
, Kiana - University of Hawai'i
Kirgesner
, Samantha - The Ohio State University
Collier
, Kia'i - Hawai'i Land Trust

Our research focuses on the remains of Kapoho, a loko iʻa kalo (fishpond that also grew taro) located at Waiheʻe, Maui. Incorporated within the Waiheʻe Coastal Dunes and Wetlands Refuge, which is managed and owned by the Hawaiʻi Land Trust (HILT), the 277-acre wildlife and cultural preserve has 93 archaeological features, remnants of native vegetation, and the most extensive fringing coral reef in west Maui.Our research program has completed the first season of fieldwork and laboratory analyses dedicated to the archaeological and microbial investigation of the fishpond, with the goal of exploring and understanding the antiquity of fishpond management, and Kānaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian) knowledge of critical biological processes. Our research has also sponsored workshops with the goal of lending archaeological and microbial information to the community-led effort to rebuild and restore the fishpond. Our research is part of a collective effort to restore ecological resilience in Hawaiʻi as part of traditional (and sustainable) cultural practices.

16:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Turner
, Nancy - University of Victoria
Manson
, C'tasi:a Geraldine - Snuneymuxw Nation and Vancouver Island University

This presentation reflects and honours the history of the Snuneymuxw Coast Salish Peoples of the east coast of Vancouver Island, along the Salish Sea, as reflected in land-based stories, haunting images carved into rock, and the memories of contemporary knowledge holders extending over their lands and waters. Snuneymuxw territory has changed drastically since the first Europeans arrived, with vast areas being damaged over the decades by mining, clearcut logging, road construction and urban development. C’tasi:a, now an Elder, has witnessed many of these changes, but has taken immense efforts to identify, maintain and share Snuneymuxw place-based oral history and precious cultural heritage that she learned about from her own Elders. Here we provide examples of some key places that capture the past of the Snuneymuxw Peoples and hold it for future generations.

15:30 to 17:00 (Thursday)
Meeting Room

X. Ethnomedicine

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
16:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Lagalisse
, Erica - London School of Economics

Across contemporary psychedelic counterculture, ‘plant medicine’ is celebrated as healing and spiritual in association with indigenous ritual use, yet also imagined to be optimized in Silicon Valley—by splicing ayahuasca and psilocybin, for example.  In the 1990s Ketamine was a ‘horse tranquilizer’ or ‘designer drug’, yet is now also celebrated as a ‘psychedelic’—and semantically continuous with indigenous healing as a consequence.  My ethnography explores New Age youth culture at massive psytrance parties across Europe, where I am positioned as a popular educator and interact with psychonauts, “chaos magicians” and other techno-utopian “digital nomads” who smoke synthetic DMT sprayed on plants and tell of “machine elves”.  I explore primitive accumulation in relation to the legalization and medicalization of mind-altering plants, and how participants in the neoliberal “psychedelic renaissance” shift between celebrating nature and its improvement, wherein indigenous knowledge is referenced and displaced in the marketing of psychedelics for workplace use. 

Friday, April 26, 2024

09:00 to 10:00 (Friday)
Auditorium North

XI. Reflections on the Field

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
09:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Anderson
, Eugene - University of California, RIverside

To me, the critical moment in ethnobiology was the point at which anthropologists began to specify what words meant in traditional small-scale languages, instead of “translating” words by finding an English or Latin equivalent. Self-conscious use of “native categories” began with Lewis Henry Morgan and Frank Cushing in the 1870s, and won its way slowly against some opposition. The term “ethnobotany” was coined by John Harshbarger in 1895. By the time of John Peabody Harrington, indigenous categories were focal to research, and “ethnozoology” appeared as a term. Harrington had much to do with spreading the idea. I got into the field in 1960, by which time “ethnoscience” had just been added to the mix. My personal experiences at the dawn of that field may be useful to historians of ethnobiology.

09:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Flachs
, Andrew - Purdue University

Ethnobiologists are increasingly turning to the economic and political consequences of our interdisciplinary scholarship. In this talk, I ask what ethnobiology can contribute to a conversation skeptical of unfettered economic growth while cautioning against anti-growth traps like ecofascism or unequal austerity. Many ethnobiologists show how neoliberal capitalist growth reforms socioecological relations. But more interestingly, ethnobiologists have meticulously documented already-existing diverse economies and pathways of social reproduction: systems of socio-ecological and economic exchange that decenter growth as an economic truth. None of this necessarily means doing less. Ethnobiological attention to highly specialized local knowledge across time and place has shown that many systems can be productive and stable – they are just not scalable or easily transposed to a new context. Although we rarely frame our research as such, ethnobiologists have a unique, data-rich perspective on growth skepticism that is crucial to a 21st century marked by rising temperatures, inequality, and authoritarianism.

09:00 to 10:00 (Friday)
Auditorium South

XII. Paleoethnobotany and Archaeology

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
09:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Salywon
, Andrew - Desert Botanical Garden
Hodgson
, Wendy - Desert Botanical Garden

Agaves were important plants to many prehistoric cultures for food and other uses. In Arizona, Agave parryi was reported to be found outside of its normal distribution and in association with archaeological sites in 1976- presumably, as a result of prehistoric human introduction. We report numerous A. parryi plants also in close association with habitation and agricultural features from a site near Prescott, Arizona. Prescott Culture occupation of the site, estimated from A.D. 1250–1400, is indicated by Black-on-Gray ceramic sherds and the architecture. This site is within the natural range of A. parryi. However, no other agaves were observed in the vicinity. Given the importance of agave in the economy and subsistence of prehistoric peoples and the ease with which various species of agave can be vegetatively propagated, backyard gardens such as the one documented here provide insight into how the process of agave domestication may have taken place.

09:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Fairbanks
, Regina - University of California, Davis
Ross-Ibarra
, Jeffrey - University of California, Davis

Domestication often involved radical morphological changes as plants adapted to novel anthropogenic environments. Understanding the origin of genetic variants underlying these changes has long been of interest. Despite the dramatic morphological differences between maize and its wild relative teosinte, research on a handful of well-described genes has found that maize domestication relied on preexisting genetic variation in ancient teosinte. But, researchers had concluded that one key trait and the genetic variation that causes it – exposed kernels and a mutation in the tga1 gene – could exist only in cultivated populations. Using population genetic analysis of modern maize and teosinte genomes, we instead find that the key mutation in tga1 likely predates domestication. Our ongoing genome-wide analysis investigates the potential contributions of preexisting genetic variation beyond well-studied domestication genes. While these patterns may partially arise from maize biology, we anticipate that our findings will yield insight into people-plant relationships associated with domestication.

09:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Shay
, Creighton (C. Thomas) - University of Manitoba

Over 2600 charred seeds from 107 soil samples were found at the site of Kenosewun, the “place of many fishes,” (also called Lockport, EaLf-1) situated along the Red River near Winnipeg, Manitoba. These plant finds cover more than three thousand years and include more than thirty genera, including goosefoot, amaranth, dock, hazelnut, and raspberry. Yet, the most noteworthy were over a hundred fragments of maize (Zea mays) dating to ca 1250-1450 CE. Apparently, maize was only grown and eaten during a couple of centuries at Kenosewun while small-seeded goosefoot and other plants were gathered or grown both before maize production began there and continued after it ceased. Archaeologists and historians have long hailed the introduction and ascendency of maize as a staple food. However, in many situations in North American history, maize was introduced but later abandoned, leaving many unanswered questions about such major changes in foodways.

09:00 to 10:00 (Friday)
Meeting Room

XIII. Urbanization and Local Knowledge

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
09:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Eddy
, Zoe Antoinette - Worcester Polytechnic Institute

While the guineafowl is endemic to Africa, the species has been domesticated widely across the globe and holds cultural import in various communities. It has generated both fame and infamy: guineafowl eggs and meat are prized in folk cuisine, and the birds often serve as exceptional "alarms" on predator-susceptible farms; however, so too are the birds' known for wild temperament, aggressive behavior, and shrill (seemingly constant) noise. The latter has not daunted their keeping in the United States. While the birds are generally deemed an "exotic" species far different from the average backyard chicken, they are nevertheless a popular bird among American keepers. Based on ethnographic research conducted with guineafowl keepers, this talk examines what guineafowl reveal about human perceptions of domestic birds. I examine both historical and contemporary keeper understandings of the bird. Ultimately, I seek to explore how human relationships with guineafowl expose the precarious status of birds, particularly domesticated birds, in the United States.

10:30 to 11:15 (Friday)
Auditorium North

XIV. The Ethnobiology of Birds

Session Type: 
Oral
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Stephanie C. Kane, PhD - Indiana University

Session Description

On the edges of noisy cities and in the deep quiet of forests, avian worlds are part of human worlds. This session brings together those who have researched, thought and written about birds and their relations to humans in ecologies, biomes, stories, flyways, backyards, languages, laws and policies, and spiritual arts. The aim is to enroll birds as allies in a broad-scope and collective ethnobiological project to understand how to respond creatively and justly to key planetary transformations.

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
10:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Gosford
, Bob
Bonta
, Mark

In 2017 colleagues and I documented preliminary research and findings on intentional fire-spreading behaviour by several Australian raptors. That publication, though primarily based on direct observations by non-Aboriginal land managers, briefly noted the centrality of Aboriginal knowledge of this behaviour to our research and identified that knowledge base as a future research priority. Following up on that work, we have concentrated on two primary research tasks. Firstly, reviewing interviews conducted between 2009 and 2017 with knowledge holders and land managers and second, further interviews with Aboriginal landowners, knowledge holders and land managers to 2023.In this presentation we will examine the important roles that Garrkan­­—the Brown Falcon, Falco berigora—is accorded as a landscape-scale land manager through the manipulation of wildfire, as a cultural actor in traditional ceremonies and in cultural practices and beliefs, and as a “troublemaker for fire.” We will summarise prospects for future collaborative research.

10:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Hunn
, Eugene - University of Washington

Documenting how local communities recognize and name the distinctive elements of their biodiverse environment provides a solid foundation for understanding how we humans engage the wider society of sentient beings, the core of the ethnographic enterprise. Among the earliest systematic ethnographies is Sahagún’s encyclopedic documentation of Aztec life, accessible in the original Náhuatl, with a parallel English translation (Florentine Codex). The largest Codex volume is devoted to ”Earthly Things,” including a chapter describing “all the birds” (tōtō-tl). To translate the birds named, described, and illustrated in th Codex, I offer my best educated guesses as to the correspondence of each Náhuatl bird name to one or more Linnean taxa based on each bird’s morphology, vocalizations, habitat, and seasonal movements, as described by the Aztec scribes. My confidence in my “educated guesses” varies, but I offer reasoned justifications for 131 of 135 categories named in the Codex.

10:30 to 12:00 (Friday)
Auditorium South

XV. Cultural Forests

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
11:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Robinson
, Alyssa Jeanne - UBC
Cornelis
, Jean-Thomas - UBC
Armstrong
, Chelsey Geralda - SFU

Indigenous peoples in Pacific Northwest actively managed forests for millennia, yet scholars know little about the extent to which their management practices impacted soil properties. Recent research has shown that the legacies of historical peoples’ active management of temperate forests can still be observed today in native plant foodsheds called “forest gardens” composed largely of deciduous fruit trees and shrubs, growing near archaeological village sites. Forest garden ecosystems and plant foods were historically actively managed through practices such as burning, transplanting, clearing, and fertilizing. Historical soil management may play a vital role in maintaining these landscapes. Here we aim to investigate how ancestral practices and changes in vegetation properties affect soil properties influencing nutrient cycling and organic matter dynamics. To guide the revitalization of Indigenous forest garden stewardship, we partner with Kitselas First Nation to gain a deeper understanding of ancestral practices from Indigenous research methodologies.

10:30 to 12:00 (Friday)
Meeting Room

XVI. Food Resilience in a Changing World

Session Type: 
Oral

Presentations

Time
(UTC-5)
Abstract
10:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Wehi
, Priscilla - University of Otago

For many communities, hosting large gatherings bring families together, and food systems are central to these events. We partnered with two Māori communities in New Zealand to explore how these communities embody resilience in their food systems. We collected data from two community gatherings that have been held annually for > 100 years. At Marokopa, volunteers returned from a variety of distant locations; at Tūrangawaewae volunteers generally walked or drove short distances to the gathering. Gifted contributions of food from local gardens continues a history of connection to traditional food systems at Marokopa. At Turangawaewae, most provisions were store bought, but there was a strong focus on healthy eating. Both events produced little waste. Despite a shift from self sufficiency in food systems, these communities demonstrate resilience in their hosting motivations, and a commitment to kaitiakaitanga (stewardship) in their focus on healthy foods, recycling, food waste, and intergenerational learning.

10:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Fahey
, Fionna - Purdue University

White supremacy, capitalism, and neoliberalism disrupt communal relationships to seeds and further harm local food systems and specifically Black, Brown, and Indigenous seedways. Food sovereignty, organic, and grassroots initiatives have used seed exchanges and libraries to confront these issues. Ethnobiologists and anthropologists have contextualized biodiversity, conservation, and seed politics to advance these struggles in solidarity. However, existing scientific and policy mechanisms for exchanging seed knowledge continue to isolate seeds from their social contexts and restrict the dynamic qualities of seeds to static exchange agreements. In this paper I draw on feminist anthropology, ethnobiology, and applied anthropological research with a national seed organization to interrogate these existing ethics of seed exchanges. I argue for an in vivo seed ethic  (cf. Nazarea & Rhoades 2013), that refuses dominant neoliberal logics of scalability (Tsing 2021) and exploitation, to allow for living commitments to reciprocity; thus reflecting the dynamic nature of seeds, communities, and advocacy. 

 

11:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
McAlvay
, Alex - New York Botanical Garden
Hassen
, Seid - Wollo University
Dejen
, Asmare - Wollo University
Amare
, Endale - Ethiopian Public Health Institute
Asfaw
, Zemede - Addis Ababa University
Al-Zein
, Mohammad - American University of Beirut
Mosulishvili
, Marina - Ilia State University
Burnett
, Emma - The Oxford Artisan Distillery
Letts
, John - The Oxford Artisan Distillery
DiPaola
, Anna - Cornell University

Wheat, barley, and other small grains face substantial yield losses under all climate change scenarios. The sowing of maslins, or mixtures which combine multiple grain species, was formerly widespread in Eurasia and northern Africa, and continues to be employed by smallholder farmers in some parts of the world, where it may represent a risk management strategy for climate variability. We carried out interviews and field experiments in Ethiopia and the Republic of Georgia to document the use of cereal mixtures as a resilience strategy, and understand their agroecology. Most interviewees reported that the mixtures afforded drought resistance, fungus resistance, and other advantages, but had declined or ceased due to exogenous pressures factors, rather than their performance. Agroecological experiments indicated that they provide a means of increasing yield and potentially yield stability compared to some monocropped components. Revitalizing Indigenous and local strategies for climate resilience may provide a way forward.

11:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Solankar
, Saish - Independent

In parts of Nagaland, India, subsistence hunting and farming lie at the intersection of ecosystems, cultural identities, and subsistence. The Lothas, one of the major tribes of the state, follow such subsistence practices which create nature dependent identities and cultures. Here, I provide an ethnographic insight into such practices of subsistence, through hunting and farming, which give us insight into multispecies relatedness and socialities in the backdrop of historical missionization and within the context of an ongoing biodiversity crisis.

11:30 to 13:00 (Friday)
Auditorium North

XVII. When we listen, what can we hear? Foregrounding listening methods in ethnobotany

Session Type: 
Roundtable
Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
Aubrey Streit Krug - The Land Institute, Kelly Kindscher - University of Kansas

Session Description

In our dominant culture, listening is considered to be something largely passive. Yet, when we have the experience of feeling genuinely listened to, it has the power to transform and expand our relationships. While not always something that is valued or carefully taught, who we listen to and how we listen can have great impact on the design, quality, results, governance and relevance of our research. In a world increasingly built on abbreviated information, how might we return to being active observers in our listening? What are the ethical and practical aspects of leading with listening in our research across lines of difference? What might be some barriers, challenges and tools to getting there? This interactive roundtable discussion will describe the utility of active listening in ethnobotanical research, and the responsibility of researchers to practice that listening with integrity - as is the case with historical sources as well as living, contemporary ones. Participants in this roundtable come together through unique partnerships emerging amongst The Land Institute, the University of Kansas, Indigenous communities, and the community-based Palestinian research group Makaneyyat, that are all investigating the roles of food plants in our lives and cultures through ethnobotany, perennial crop development, art, restoration, participatory research, and education. Participants include Marcela Paiva Veliz, Kelly Kindscher, Tayor Keen, Omar Tesdell, Tala Khouri, Amy June Breesman, and Aubrey Streit Krug.

    13:30 to 15:00 (Friday)
    Event Center

    XIX. Advances in Data Science and Environmental Archaeology

    Session Type: 
    Poster
    Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
    Jonathan Dombrosky - Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Molly Carney

    Session Description

    Data scientists combine expertise in statistical workflows, database creation and maintenance, and programming language to efficiently analyze large amounts of data. Their goal is to understand complex phenomena and offer new insights from large datasets. Modern society is now reliant on data science considering how effective it is at extracting useful information. Whether we like it or not, data science and its technologies are here to stay. Environmental archaeology—a subdiscipline with explicit ethnobiological connections—is rich in data from a vast array of different areas of research, such as geochemistry, environmental science, ecology, botany, and zoology. Environmental archaeologists have rapidly adopted data science approaches to glean accurate, precise, and replicable insights from the archaeological record. This poster session highlights new approaches in data science that help support the study of how past peoples interacted with their environments. We focus on such topics as the creation and management of ethnobiological databases, open-source tools in scientific communication, interactive data visualizations and user engagement, and new statistical and computing techniques to better understand the archaeology of human-environment interaction. Posters in this session demonstrate how these relatively new techniques and technologies are not mere distractions but offer the potential to expand our understanding of people-organism-environment interactions and relationships. Ethnobiologists can leverage data science to help sustainably support, expand, and transform the field well into the future.

    Presentations

    Time
    (UTC-5)
    Abstract
    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    Dombrosky
    , Jonathan - Crow Canyon Archaeological Center

    Scholars across various fields of research have noted a reproducibility crisis. At the heart of this crisis is the fact that many results are unverifiable because researchers have not provided raw data and/or sufficient documentation. The fields of archaeology, zooarchaeology, and ethnobiology have not eluded these discussions, and they would benefit from unifying open science and publication practices. Quarto is a technical publishing system that integrates multiple programming languages and exports a range of different file types. Every figure, statistic, and calculation in a fully formatted publication or report can be tied back to raw data using one file type. Here, I present a workflow for producing technical archaeofaunal reports from active projects at Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, which are integrated with a large multisite, relational database. Quarto has enhanced internal reporting consistency, aided collaboration, reduced writing time, and increased understanding of complex archaeological phenomena.

    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    Carney
    , Molly - Oregon State University

    ChatGPT and other writing tools like Grammarly and QuillBot use generative artificial intelligence (AI) language models to generate comprehensible responses and written content. All three programs work when users input questions, prompts, notes, or general queries and then ask for specific output such as paragraphs, short essays, or annotated code. These programs draw on trained data in their responses. However, all programs save input content, so human trainers and developers can review and analyze user-generated inputs before allowing content to be added to future model versions. What happens, then, when AI is “fed” cultural heritage information as an input? Who then has access to that information? How can we ethically work with archaeological or ethnobiological data and AI without compromising our commitments to descendent communities? This poster explores some of these questions and looks closely at how environmental archaeological data is archived in various AI programs and offers some initial thoughts on using AI ethically. 

    13:30 to 15:00 (Friday)
    Auditorium North

    XVIII. Virtual Poster Session

    Session Type: 
    Poster

    Presentations

    Time
    (UTC-5)
    Abstract
    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (virtual)
    Author(s):
    Brandes
    , Claire - University of Texas at Austin

    Zooarchaeologists need flexible methods to interpret demographic profiles (e.g., age, sex, taxonomic identification) of faunal assemblages considering that (a) different skeletal elements will be present, and (b) remains will exhibit varying degrees of preservation, depending on the site. Faunal analyses will therefore benefit from the application of interdisciplinary quantitative methods in novel ways. Shannon’s informational entropy is a fundamental concept in information theory that measures the information content of variables within a system. This methodology has been used in ecology and zooarchaeology as a measure of biodiversity in and between ecosystems and sites. This research demonstrates the application of Shannon’s entropy to osteometric data with both micro and macrofauna. By using this measure, faunal analysts can identify which metric variables are most informative of characteristics like age and sex. Further research should result in the development of novel indices to elucidate demographic characteristics of a given population.

    13:30 to 15:00 (Friday)
    Event Center

    XX. Measuring up to Environmental Archaeology: New Biometric Applications to the Study of Past Plant and Animal Remains

    Session Type: 
    Poster
    Session Organizer(s)/Chair(s): 
    Jonathan Dombrosky - Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Martin Welker

    Session Description

    Some of the first studies in ethnobiology relied on the measurement of anatomical features from biological specimens, such as skeletal elements or plant seeds. Advances in environmental archaeology increasingly rely on robust measurements of biological specimens, or biometrics. This increase is related to the development of new imaging technology and robust statistical computing techniques. For example, environmental archaeologists now frequently turn to 3D scanning technology and/or open-source packages for multivariate statistics that allow for objective shape-based analyses (i.e., morphometrics). These new techniques and perspectives promise to reinvigorate a classic area of ethnobiological research. In this session, we highlight the reassessment of standard metrics used for taxonomic identification, the creation of new measurements for identification, the replicability of different protocols, and new areas of research that benefit from a focus on biometrics.

    Presentations

    Time
    (UTC-5)
    Abstract
    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    Kiahtipes
    , Christopher - University of South Florida
    Young
    , Olivia - Imagine Museum,
    Huebner
    , Benjamin - University of South Florida
    Jean-Baptiste
    , Janell - University of South Florida
    Koerner
    , Lauren - University of South Florida
    Malerba
    , Amanda - University of South Florida
    Rogers
    , Jaime - University of South Florida
    Skinner
    , Haille - University of South Florida
    Stone
    , Riley - University of South Florida

    The reconstruction of past fire regimes through physical and chemical analysis is critical to understanding human-ecological dynamics and their influence on past and present landscapes. Quantification of macroscopic charcoal accumulation in sedimentary archives provides reliable information on fire frequency and the vegetation types burned. Established methods for charcoal quantification utilize chemical preparation methods that are destructive to non-charred macrobotanical remains. Using macrobotanical remains in cores from the inner Congo Basin, we apply image analysis of samples under refracted and transmitted light to quantify charcoal accumulation and characterize local vegetation at the coring site. After classification of the plant remains based on color, size, and morphological characteristics, we compare our results with standard microcharcoal analysis using bleached samples. Our preliminary findings provide first insights into fire dynamics in Congo Basin swamp forests and provide a roadmap for developing non-destructive methods of analyzing macrobotanical remains and assessing microcharcoal accumulation rates.

    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    Dombrosky
    , Jonathan - Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
    Wolverton
    , Steve - Department of Geography and the Environment, University of North Texas
    McCright
    , Tessa - Department of Geography and the Environment, University of North Texas

    Barbara Lawrence published morphological criteria for identifying pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from skeletal remains in the U.S. Southwest, and these criteria are routinely used in the analysis of archaeofaunas across North America. Some criteria are often extrapolated to other related species, such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite the widespread and general use of Lawrence’s protocols, zooarchaeologists have not assessed whether these criteria discriminate taxa when larger sample sizes are considered or when the same taxa are evaluated from different geographic areas. Researchers have also not demonstrated that observers can identify these criteria. Here, we developed linear measurements to capture morphological criteria for identifying pronghorn and mule deer from the astragalus. We investigate intra- and interobserver variability in measurement error and determine the probability of successful taxonomic identification using the criteria. Our results offer a means to assess and thereby bolster data quality in faunal analysis.

    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    Welker
    , Martin - Arizona State Museum/University of Arizona
    Kremer
    , Max

    White-tailed deer and mule deer occur over much of North America, with significant overlap in the western United States including Arizona. Though white-tailed and mule deer occupy different environmental zones, and can differ in size, they have similar skeletal morphology. When archaeologists have attempted to differentiate white-tailed deer and mule deer skeletal elements, they generally rely upon size as the distinguishing factor. In 2004 Jodi A. Jacobson developed a system for differentiating these species using post-cranial skeletal landmarks. We tested the reliability of individual landmarks in Jacobson’s system by having volunteers perform a blind study using 34 modern reference samples from two collections curated by the Arizona State Museum. This analysis also enables us to test the consistency with which analysts with varying levels of experience could apply Jacobson’s system.

    13:30 to 15:00 (Friday)
    Event Center

    XXI. General Poster Session

    Session Type: 
    Poster

    Presentations

    Time
    (UTC-5)
    Abstract
    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    Zandvliet
    , Alyssa - Simon Fraser University

    Using historical-ecological approaches, this research presents proposed pathways for better understanding settler colonial and Quw’utsun (Cowichan, Coast Salish) land-use histories over decadal and centennial scales. Focusing on the Cowichan River Estuary, a highly developed and industrialized inlet on eastern Vancouver Island, and in collaboration with Cowichan Tribes, this research will integrate primary source data (ship logs, trader diaries, early surveys), ecological surveys, and ethnographic interviews, to assess how land-use in the estuary has changed over time. Preliminary results indicate that at the onset of early colonial incursions, the estuary was a dynamic food system characterized by forest gardens of Garry oak savannah, native fruit tree orchards, and intertidal root gardens. Within decades, commercial logging and farming resulted in a net turn-over in species and increased sediment loading (upwards of 2 m of sediment deposited in ~70 years), drastically reducing plant diversity and Quw’utsun food system resilience. 

    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    North
    , Joel - University of Arkansas
    Carney
    , Molly - Oregon State University

    The American beautyberry (C. americana) is a member of Lamiaceae native to the American Southeast, characterized by its bunches of small, bright purple berries. Historical accounts detail the preparations of C. americana used by Southeastern Indigenous groups to treat several ailments, including dysentery, arthritis, and fevers. As recently as the early 20th century, Rural Euroamericans used the leaves of C. americana as an insect repellent for themselves and domestic animals. Two biologically active compounds, callicarpenal, and intermedeol, were isolated from C. americana leaves and demonstrated experimentally to be as effective as DEET against common mosquito species and deer ticks. In the summer of 2022, I spent a couple of days processing Beautyberry leaves to extract the essential oil and found it effective against mosquitos in Central Arkansas. Further study into the viability of these compounds could prove important in producing sustainable insect repellents in the future.

     

    13:30
    Presentation format: 
    Poster display (live)
    Author(s):
    Ford
    , Anabel - U of Calif Sta Barbara/Exploring SOilutions Past
    Tran
    , Justin - U of Calif RIverside

    Traditional Maya land-use strategies have been maligned as primitive, yet they demonstrate persistence and resilience to this day. Denigrating the milpa forest-garden cycle as shifting agriculture fails to see it as an asynchronous cycle that includes open fields of annual crops, perennial succession providing products used in the home, and closed-canopy forests for fruits and construction materials. This poster addresses this issue using spatial analysis and traditional ecological knowledge from living Maya farmers. Combining settlement data and DEM to quantify slope thresholds, we examine the landscape of El Pilar. We test the limits of land use at El Pilar, explore potential variability for subsistence and construction at El Pilar, and investigate strategies of traditional land use in the tropical Maya lowlands. The results guide a discussion of the sustainability of the milpa cycle within the Maya forest.