2021 Conference Program

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(Presentations marked with an asterisk are being considered for the Barbara Lawrence Award.)

Wednesday May 12, 2021

07:15 to 08:03 (Wednesday)
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Human Relationships with Cycads

Organizer/Moderator: 
Mark Bonta

Session Description

Cycads (order Cycadales), around 350 extant species of palm-like gymnosperms, are the most endangered group of biota on the planet. Despite containing high levels of toxins, they are used worldwide by local and Indigenous people for ceremonies and diets. In these roles, they often take on extraordinary significance as markers of power and prestige, and are frequently associated with the transitional realm between life and afterlife. Papers in this session examine the ethnobiology of cycads in a diverse array of contexts.

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
07:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Bonta
, Mark

Cycads are ingested for narcotic purposes and are likely hallucinogens. The Nahuatl term “peyote” is applied in Mexico to species used as narcotics both in ritual and in recreational context. Elsewhere in the Americas, extreme secrecy surrounds shamanic uses of Zamia, suggesting narcotic consumption. In South Africa, Encephalartos is consumed ritually and recreationally for its narcotic properties. Elsewhere in the world, traditional cycad nomenclature suggests they are valued for their mind-altering properties. Given cycads’ pronounced neurotoxicity, the cost of BMAA consumption to users may be considerable, unless the narcotic is somehow rendered safe. In Mexico as well as South Africa, damage to wild populations is occurring because of a clandestine market in the drug. Nevertheless, the fact that shamans use them offers the potential for understanding more about the often-exalted roles of cycads in traditional society, for example their deification in Mexico as maize gods.

07:27
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Osiievskyi
, Yevhenii - National University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy"

The leaves of cycads (“namele” in Bislama) appear as one of the most prominent objects in the symbolic vocabulary of Vanuatu archipelago since the time the first ethnographic accounts on the territory were written. They continue to occupy a privileged place in the country’s culture today: namele leaves are portrayed on Vanuatu’s flag, used in the practice of traditional courts, and chiefly authorities. Based on the material primarily gathered at three research sites (Espiritu Santo, Pentecost, Malekula) this review identifies key reference frameworks from the archipelago in which cycads are invoked and deployed. The first such locus is the use of cycads as a commemorative marker – to distinguish places of particular ritual or supernatural significance. Second, the presentation of cycad leaves as a symbol of reconciliation in the contexts of court hearings and, historically, peace restoration between the belligerent groups. Third, as an emblem of chiefly authority across the wide spectrum of situations.

07:39
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Englehardt
, Joshua - El Colegio de Michoacan
Carrasco
, Michael - Florida State University

This paper explores the place of cycads in Japanese culture, with a specific focus on Cycas revoluta in the Ryukyu archipelago’s Amami Islands. Although a wealth of ethnohistorical and genomic evidence points to the sustained alimentary and symbolic significance of cycads as a managed wild food in this region since the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, their role in Amamian foodways and agroecological systems remains relatively underappreciated, and the broader features of this intriguing aspect of regional culture remain virtually unknown outside Japan. Accordingly, we adopt a critical heritage framework to parse the social and environmental roles of cycads in ancient and modern Amamian cultural practices. Through examples from these and neighboring contexts, we seek to highlight this unique biocultural patrimony, both to contribute to wider scholarly discourse on wild foods in pre-grain subsistence strategies and to incentivize holistic preservation of the practices, histories, and values related to Japanese cycad heritage.

07:51
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Blaser Mapitsa
, Caitlin - University of the Witwatersrand

Cycads play a central role in balobedu cultural mythology, with widespread acknowledgement for their cultural and spiritual value, as well as their practical use in rainmaking and coronation ceremonies. However, due to the conservation concerns with South African cycad species, most of which are endangered and all of which are protected, the ownership, trade, and use of cycads is heavily regulated. This piece of research explores how processes of regulation are understood by balobedu communities, where traditional authority and state authority may collaborate around conservation efforts, but are also perceived very differently in communities.  Processes of cycad regulation both reenforce and challenge certain aspects of community identity.

07:15 to 08:00 (Wednesday)
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Ethnobiology and Therapeutics/Cosmetics

Organizer/Moderator: 
Ashley Blazina

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
07:15
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Kolosova
, Valeria - Ca' Foscari University of Venice; Institute for Linguistic Studies, Russi

The paper is focused on cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies for skin used in the Republic of Karelia. The material was collected in 2018 and 2019. According to the data, plants – wild, cultivated, or bought – take the leading part in this area (60 species, more than 300 plant uses), though animal, mineral, and magical remedies were used, too. The most popular among them are Urtica sp. (43 plant uses), Betula sp. (30), Matricaria chamomilla L. (24), Chelidonium majus L. (23), Bidens tripartita L. and Viburnum opulus L. (18). The problem annoying Karelia inhabitants the most is bathing babies with skin problems (miliaria, allergy, diathesis). The second place is taken by warts. Rinsing hair after washing with additions of various herbs also takes an important part in hygienic practices. At the same time, freckles or bad smell from mouth were not supposed to be problems drawing attention. Funding: ERC 714874

07:30
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Dave
, Harendrakumar - Edith Cowan University

Santalum album (SA) (Indian sandalwood) is known for its fragrance. It is intertwined with Indian culture (1). Its woody fragrant molecules play a vital role in its material properties. Early civilizations used fire, water, and stone to explore natural material properties. It can be pulped easily by using compressive-shearing force by hand on a small piece of wood on a grinding stone in the presence of water. This fragrant wood pulp has been used in religion and as cosmeceutical.

Literature survey indicates that other fragrant species of santalum are only used as an essential oil or aromatic smoke.

Santalum species like santalum spicatum (SS), (2), yasi can also be pulped by the same technique and used by local people as a cosmeceutical in Hawaii, Fiji, etc.

References: (1) Arunkumar, A.N. et al. Current Science, (12) 103, (2012)

(2) Dave, Harendrakumar; Plant Cell Wall Symposium, New Zealand (2017)

(2) Dave, Harendrakumar; Plant Cell Wall Symposium, New Zealand (2017)

07:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Sehgal
, Anju - Government Post Graduate College Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh (India)

Traditional healers are doing great job in today’s era by extending a big hand to physicians and curing ailments by way of medicinal plants. The rare knowledge which they have acquired through their forefathers needs to be documented and brought forward in order to contribute to the ethnobotanical world. The healing of knee pain through plants fumigation and applying the salt based plant parts is main focus of the paper which also intends to help elderly people by home remedies.The remotest tribes/aboriginals still rely on the most cheapest and natural therapy for easy and quick recovery. An insight into the village healers gave meticulous results. A person on bed healed to the extent that he started flying a plane.

11:00 to 14:00 (Wednesday)
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Beyond data: peer-to-peer learning

Organizer/Moderator: 
Baiba PRUSE
FLOOR

Session Description

The workshop team foresees the Conference of the Society of Ethnobiology as the perfect platform to bring discussion on how to go beyond the recommendations mentioned in the academic study to implementation particularly while discussing local ecological knowledge (e.g. LEK and water&food security). Several examples exist where researchers propose future research and/or propose the need for developing actions. Thus this workshop aims to serve as a peer-to-peer learning and working ground where participants bring their study and share success stories/strategies used on how their academic advice was brought into policy/action/art and/or list challenges experienced and/or requests advice from the peers on the steps to be taken. 

The workshop will use the approach of Science Cafe and CLIPS tools with emphasis on open discussion. Prior to the workshop the participants will be requested to propose academic studies they would like to be discussed during the workshop. The discussion of the workshop will be compiled in a report with a potential for publishing.

Link to Case Study Submission: https://forms.gle/29QRnEoBebVrYc1W6

More visual information of the session here: https://twitter.com/SofEthnobiology/status/1376966725527343107/photo/1

11:00 to 12:15 (Wednesday)
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Ethnobotany

Organizer/Moderator: 
Morgan Ruelle

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
11:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Ruelle
, Morgan - Clark University
Asfaw
, Zemede - Addis Ababa University

Since the late 19th century, farmers throughout the Ethiopian highlands have planted Eucalyptus spp. as an alternative fuel, construction material, boundary marker, and source of cash income. Eucalyptus now dominates woody vegetation, while indigenous species such as cedar (Juniperus procera) and olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata) are increasingly rare. Based on interviews, preference ranking, and participatory mapping with farmers in Debark, northwestern Ethiopia, we compare the cultural and economic values of eucalyptus, cedar, and olive. Eucalyptus is appreciated for its high growth rate, coppicing ability, multifunctionality, and market price, whereas cedar and olive have greater cultural values, including close association with the Ethiopian Orthodox church. Although they continue to plant eucalyptus in place of indigenous trees, many farmers are concerned that its proliferation contributes to a warmer, drier landscape. The case study reveals a tension between intangible values and more measurable benefits of human-plant relations.

11:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Lloyd
, T. Abe - Salal, the Cascadian Food Institute

While many species of bulrush (Bolboschoenus spp., Schoenoplectus spp., and formerly Scirpus spp.; Cyperaceae) in western North America provide widely celebrated weaving materials, their food use is poorly documented and difficult to attribute to species. I reviewed ethnographic literature and examined "root" morphology and taste in an attempt to sort out ambiguities and highlight this productive, caloric, and tasty group of vegetables for indigenous food revitilzation efforts.

11:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Balog
, Laurel - Prescott College
Currey
, Robin C. D. - Prescott College

Seeds are the basis of our food system, yet crop diversity is eroding. Web-based surveys sought to identify the prevalence and richness of saved seeds and the sources of seeds for St. Lawrence County, NY (n=21) residents to understand food system strengths and weaknesses from agrobiodiversity and seed sovereignty perspectives. Seed saver respondents (n=18) saved 67.2% (39) of the 58 ethnotaxa grown. All savers use their personal seed stocks (100.0%), and the majority use market sources (77.8%). However, only 11 ethnotaxa were widely grown and saved (at rates 50% or higher by respondents), revealing an opportunity to increase seed saving for many ethnotaxa. Content analyses revealed that seed saving motivations were related to ensuring high-quality crops and seed sovereignty, the ability to choose, access, and determine what crops/varieties are grown. Enhancing personal seed stocks and informal networks may provide additional seed sovereignty and agrobiodiversity capacities in the region.

11:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Coimbra Jr.
, Carlos - Fundação Oswaldo Cruz

The literature addressing Brazilian ethnobotany among traditional populations is extensive but often consists of long lists of plants without contextualization in the cultural universe of the people studied. Anthropologist Thekla Hartmann from the Museu Paulista at the University of São Paulo is responsible for presenting the first truly “ethno” contribution to Indigenous botany in Brazil. In the early-1960s, Hartmann conducted fieldwork with the Bororo in Central Brazil, addressing cultural and linguistic issues relevant to understanding the Indigenous classificatory system. In addition, she collected plant specimens for subsequent identification. The results of this research were published by the Institute of Brazilian Studies at the University of São Paulo in 1967 but, unfortunately, seem to have had very little circulation in the academic environment. In this paper I recuperate this relevant study which, due to its primacy and depth, should be used more by those who wish to study Indigenous ethnobotany in Brazil.

11:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Khatib
, Sara - University of Oregon

The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) is located in the Western Cascades of Oregon. During the post-world war years, demand for timber skyrocketed and the fervor of progress took over the HJA as foresters converted old-growth forests into tree plantations for timber production. Scientific forestry aimed to shift forestry toward an agriculture model. During the 1970s, the research at HJA away from industrial forestry and toward ecosystem ecology. This tradition depicted the forest as a de-historicized and bounded machine. In more recent years, dynamic ecology has come to conceptualize the uncertainties and indeterminacy of forest landscapes. These social constructs of the forest parallel certain cultural worldviews. In this paper, I will address these different traditions of science and the philosophical perception of nature that underlie them. The findings are derived from ethnographic fieldwork, semi-structured interviews, and archival analysis of oral histories, research publications, and NSF proposals.

12:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Belichenko
, Olga - Ca' Foscari University of Venice

The set of edible mushrooms within a culture can be quite conservative, as there is a risk of poisoning from unknown or poorly recognized mushrooms. Yet there are changes observed in mushroom collection throughout 20 century.

Mushrooms constitute an integral part of the diet of Setos, a small indigenous people in the Russian-Estonian borderland. They speak a dialect of Estonian and practice Orthodox Christianity. Orthodox diet prescribes numerous fasts throughout a year and mushrooms are considered a common replacement for meat.

In summer 2018-19 we interviewed 25 Setos and 34 Russians about the collected mushrooms and any changes in their repertoire and preparation. The interviews were conducted upon an informed consent. While Setos revealed special preference for Russula spp., in recent decades they started to consume the same species of mushrooms as recently acquired by Russians, Macrolepiota sp. and Cortinarius sp.

This research has been supported by ERC-StG-2016-DiGe.

11:00 to 12:15 (Wednesday)
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New Histories of Plant Use and Place

Organizer/Moderator: 
Ashley Blazina

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
11:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Mitchem
, Alexandria - Columbia University
White
, Chantel - University of Pennsylvania
Miller
, Naomi - University of Pennyslvania

Bartram’s Garden, the oldest surviving commercial botanical garden in the United States, possesses a unique history of North American plants exported to Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. During architectural restorations of the Bartram home, a rodent cache was found under the attic floorboards. It contained a variety of materials from the Bartram property, including botanical remains, newspaper and parchment fragments, cloth fragments, and faunal bone. While challenges exist in analyzing rodent cached materials, so do unique advantages. The Bartram’s cache offers the rare opportunity to study well-preserved remains of an historic garden, most notably plants that may have been omitted from or mislabeled in contemporary commercial seed catalogues. In this paper, we investigate the formation of rodent caches and address issues with dating these assemblages, in order to explore the cultivated spaces of Bartram’s that were central to constructing and mitigating early American indetinites.

11:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Walker
, Erana - The University of Waikato

Indigenous relationships to the environment are embedded in narratives and cultural practices. Such relationships to the environment have been maintained by Māori in Aotearoa New Zealand for many generations through a practical philosophy often described as kaitiakitanga. Place and practice are inextricably linked in traditional Māori narratives; a connection constructed through the creation narratives and the concept of whakapapa. Many Indigenous peoples now grapple with new circumstances, including the rise of urban spaces. Urban spaces present new challenges in maintaining the place-making processes of connection to the natural world including indigenous relationships with water bodies. As the population of urban Māori continues to grow, exploration of key components of kaitiakitanga such as place, whakapapa, intergenerational knowledge, engagement and spirituality is needed. How these components of kaitiakitanga intersect with the ecological restoration of the urban space could provide new collaborative opportunities between people and nature.

11:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Melton
, Mallory - University of California-Santa Barbara

Analysis of starch residues from sediments, surfaces, and dental calculus has proven to be a powerful tool for identifying the types of plants and preparation methods used by ancient peoples. Although morphological signatures for boiling and baking have been well-studied, less understood are the impacts of chuño production – involving freeze-drying, burying, and sun exposure – on the integrity of potato starch granules. This paper compares size metrics and qualitative attributes of modern starch granules in chuño purchased from markets in different parts of the Andes. Results reveal statistical differences in starch granule size between the two production methods, in addition to characteristic morphological attributes. This study provides an unprecedented set of criteria for identifying archaeological evidence of potato detoxification (a prerequisite for domestication) and production strategies for chuño, one of the most popular food resources in the modern-day Andes.

11:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Wilks
, Stefania - University of Utah

A wealth of information on the global patterns of human subsistence and plant domestication has been generated from studies on the starch grains of Zea mays (maize). Very little work, however, has been conducted on how the size and morphology of those grains might change if exposed to different environmental contexts (e.g., the amount of water parent plants receive). In the arid Southwest, the role of irrigation in growing maize is an important parameter in many foraging models. Our study seeks to determine if there are significant changes in the size or morphological attributes of starch grains from maize planted at Range Creek under six different irrigation regimes ranging from no irrigation to ample. Our results provide data on the impact of irrigation on the size and morphology of starch grains and, therefore, have implications for identifying archaeological maize and possibly determining past water regimes at Range Creek Canyon.

11:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Balant
, Manica - Botanical Institute of Barcelona
Gras
, Airy - Botanical Institute of Barcelona
Gàlvez
, Fran - BioScripts
Ruz
, Mario - University of Barcelona
Vallès
, Joan - University of Barcelona
Vitales
, Daniel - Botanical Institute of Barcelona
Garnatje
, Teresa - Botanical Institute of Barcelona

Nowadays, new applications of Cannabis are continuously being developed, but knowledge about its traditional uses is declining. The CANNUSE database presented here provides an organized information source on different aspects of Cannabis use and serves as a starting point for development of R&D strategies based on traditional knowledge. It contains data from 649 publications from 41 countries; more than 70% of data entries are represented by medicinal use, followed by psychoactive and alimentary use, and most common plant parts are leaf (50.51%) and seed (15.38%). Human medicinal use represents more than half of data entries. We recorded treatments for 210 ailments, the most common being sedative (6.02%), analgesic (5.84%), antidiarrhoeal (3.01%) and antihaemorrhoidal (2.52%). There is a significant relationship between system category or ailments treatment and plant parts used; leaf is associated with treatment of wounds and haemorrhoids, seeds with musculoskeletal system disorders and traumas, and inflorescence as a sedative.

12:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
ADEOGUN
, OLUWAGBENGA - University of Lagos

Fresh-cut fruits of pineapple and banana have a relatively short shelf-life, hence the need to enhance their quality. Preservation effect of ethanolic extract of leaf of Lantana camara (10%w/v) incorporated with maize-based edible coating on fresh-cut fruits of banana and pineapple were determined. The quality assessment of coated fruits at ambient temperature (PEC); untreated fruits (NTS), sodium benzoates (BSB) at ambient temperature, and a coated sample (PEC@4) at 4oC were analysed at intervals for 15 days. The quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were assayed. The extract's phytochemical analysis shows high yields of tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and low yields of alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The quality assessment of the test fresh-cut fruits revealed higher preservation activity in PEC@4 of banana and pineapple, followed by a considerable efficacy of PEC of banana and pineapple. This study shows that the extract of L. camara incorporated with maize-based coating could enhance the fresh-cut fruits of pineapple and banana.

12:45 to 14:00 (Wednesday)
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E-Ethics Lab: Decolonizing Ethnobiology

Organizer/Moderator: 
Sarah Walshaw

Session Description

The fields that feed ethnobiology - botany, zoology, anthropology, archaeology, history - were founded on imperial objectives and practices. One of the principles of the Society of Ethnobiology is to "move toward an ethnobiology which prioritizes (1) power equity, (2) receptiveness to diverse ways of knowing, and (3) social justice," (Armstong and McAlvay, SoE website).

In this session, participants will workshop ideas on how to further decolonize our principles and practices - including building this component of our web presence. This could include: proposing educational modules for recognizing and combatting imperialist science; plans to build an ethics toolkit for decolonizing practice in ethnobiology; and/or guidelines for decolonizing protocols for use in grant applications. Ultimately, our efforts will help move forward "Our purpose ...  to reduce any erasure of our colonial past while engaging with the tools and methods in relationship-building and decolonizing academia," (Armstrong and McAlvay).

12:45 to 14:00 (Wednesday)
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Mapping Resources and Cultural Sites: Purposes, Benefits, and Challenges

Organizer/Moderator: 
Nicole Sault

Session Description

The language of mapping “resources” often involves monetizing what is biological and cultural patrimony. This monetary orientation influences how maps are constructed, what is represented, and how maps are used. Within an oral tradition, maps are created through story and song as well as visual representations, in contrast to literary traditions. This change in constructing maps means that control over information changes, for what was once local knowledge transmitted orally then becomes accessible to outsiders with no personal and spiritual connection to place. Under these new circumstances, land, water, minerals, forests, wildlife, and ceremonial sites take on different meanings. What are the local meanings of maps? When maps are created by outsiders the purpose varies according to whether this is this done in consultation with local communities, or initiated by local communities for documenting land claims and protecting sovereignty. New technologies have raised issues around the implications of drones, satellites, and restrictions at international borders. In these new contexts, what protections can be employed by local communities to secure the information that is gathered and control both access and distribution?

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
12:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Hunn
, Eugene - University of Washington
Alcantara Salinas
, Graciela - College of Postgraduates-Research Associate

Biodiversity conservation conventions value biodiversity for its own sake, singling out species vulnerable to extinction. We argue that cultural recognition of biodiversity within Indigenous rural communities is as important to conserve biodiversity as strictly biological considerations. We combine these perspectives with a focus on avifauna. We summarize ethno-ornithological studies of nine Indigenous communities from northwestern Mexico to the Yucatan Peninsula. Each community occupies a fraction of the Mexican national territory and each might encounter a fraction of the 900-odd birds of regular occurrence in Mexico, in our sample, 200-270 species. Cultural recognition first requires naming. In our case studies, 87-150 distinct bird names are recorded per community. We further rate cultural recognition with respect to material and/or immaterial “uses.”. We compare which birds are most often recognized culturally across our sample of Indigenous communities. Finally, we consider the correlation between strictly biological indices of vulnerability with cultural recognition.

12:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Alexander
, Steven M. - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Song
, Christine - University of Toronto
Klenk
, Nicole - University of Toronto
Littlechild
, Danika - Carleton University

"Ethical space” – first articulated by Cree philosopher Willie Ermine – is a promising framework for working across multiple ways of knowing. We build upon the growing theoretical and empirical work that has been done regarding ethical space in the context of decision-making, with a focus on research and monitoring. We present the results of a meta-analysis of 62 published case studies that aimed to bridge Indigenous science and Western science in aquatic research and monitoring in Canada. Based on a systematic map and in-depth qualitative analysis, we analyzed how levels of Indigenous participation and quality of participation varied in research implementation and identified 11 exemplar case studies. This cluster of case studies provides useful guidance on how to create and maintain an ethical space of engagement for bridging multiple ways of knowing. Our study also makes recommendations on how to improve research practices to achieve more meaningful and dialogical ethical spaces.

13:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Hecht
, David - University of Georgia

At the intersection of Tibetan Buddhism and indigenous ‘Bon’ animism in the Eastern Himalayas, complex spiritual and spatial ontologies exist between protective territorial deities (gnas bdag gzhi bdag, yul lha) and the communities that propitiate them. In Bhutan, a suite of local deities and non-human spirits are known to occupy territory, in forests, cliffs, trees, lakes, and springs, mediating relationships between people and their environments. Different local deity classes occupy and exhibit agency within a territory, areas described as “the deity’s palace” or “citadel of the deity” (pho brang). Such spatial ontologies inevitably intersect with the politics of conservation and development. While characteristics of gnas bdag gzhi bdag are historically documented in religious texts, there have been relatively few efforts to document this knowledge with community practitioners. Moreover, even fewer efforts to map deity citadels in a participatory capacity exist, precluding richer geographical understanding of their relational complexities, protected status, spatiality, and territoriality.

13:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Schlag
, Juliane - Brown University

The talk will look at three case studies from New England, showing how rivers and water bodies channeled human interactions of settler colonialism and created temporal and spatial defined resource extraction hierarchies. Using pollen data, archeological findings, and historical sources, the talk will discuss shifts in Abenaki and settler interactions with their local waterbodies tied to changes in the local colonial society and its consequences on the wider ecosystem of the region. Comparing three regions from different biomes in New England, the talk will highlight that any hydrological history of Abenaki people and settler colonialism encompasses the need to understand geographic features in light of long-term factures in socio-ecological relationships and its environmental consequences.

13:34
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Markovic
, Nevena - The Institute of Heritage Sciences INCIPIT CSIC, UPV-EHU

Tracing back ethnobotanical knowledge to the protection of nature through tradition, the paper looks at local knowledge and the use of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in the area of Konitsa in Northern Epirus (Greece). This former agropastoral community belongs to the oak zone (Nitsiakos, 2016) and the Vikos-Aoos Geopark whose floristic value corresponds to 1/4 of the country’s plants. Salvia officinalis, Sideritis raeseri, Primula veris, Cistus incanus, and Orchis mascula appear to be among the species of the greatest knowledge and the frequency of use. Drawing on ethnobotany as the “science of survival” (Prance, 2007), and grounding ethnobotany in traditional knowledge and “experiential sustainability” (Nitsiakos, 2016), I test storytelling as affective practice (Nardi, 2016) through small personal stories and life-histories. By introducing the notion of ‛ethnobotanical emotions’, I argue that sounding out or mapping ethnobotanical narratives and associated affective practices can be a form of Emotional Mapping.

13:46
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Kashivale
, Gurunath - Ph. D Scholar, The Institute of Science, Mumbai
Kakde
, Umesh - Associate Professor, The Institute of Science, Mumbai

The Indigenous people depend upon the plant based remedies. In the present study area the major indigenous communities viz. Thakur, Katkari, Warli,that have been engaged in such practices. Their knowledge and practices almost lacking in written communication. The present study area, Shahapur a tribal tehsil, is the northern part of Konkan region which is located at 19.45° North Latitude 73.33° East Longitude which includes the Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary. Present study is the result of intensive, systematic, Ethnobotanical exploration of Shahpur Tehsil, made during the period from June 2018 to Feb 2020. During the present investigation, observations were made to record the medicinal and edible plants used by the tribals. Total 61 plants species belonging to 36 different families of angiosperm are being used by them for ethnobotanical purposes. Among them some plants are commonly used for human as well as veterinary purposes. About 16 plants (26%) are specifically used for fodder and veterinary diseases.

12:45 to 14:00 (Wednesday)
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Ethical Dimensions of Ethnobiology

Organizer/Moderator: 
James Welch

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
12:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Briceño
, Fiorella - Environmental Science and Policy Department, George Mason University
Bowler
, Mark - University of Suffolk
Griffiths
, Brian - School of Integrative Studies, George Mason University
Gilmore
, Michael - School of Integrative Studies, George Mason University

Hunting is one of the most important drivers of large mammal population decline in the Amazon. Despite its significance, wild meat consumption in Amazonian cities is poorly understood. In Iquitos, the largest urban center of the Peruvian Amazon, there is access to a range of animal proteins, yet people still consume wild meat. To understand the importance of wild meat to food security, and the sustainability of the trade current and accurate estimates of wild meat consumption are necessary. This research aims to tackle the complex question of how much wild meat people in Iquitos consume by systematically sampling the city and interviewing heads of households. It shows that consumption has increased and analyzes the change in species targeted by hunters for sale in urban markets in comparison to previous studies.

12:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Eloheimo
, Marja - The Evergreen State College

This presentation sheds light on ways in which ‘green’ approaches to mitigating climate change are perpetuating destructive colonial practices among the Sámi-- original people of what-is-now Norway, Sweden, Finland and NW Russia. These practices--including wind projects, dams, railroads, and mining--follow centuries of erasure, oppression, biological racism, and now climate change itself, which is dramatically disrupting basic traditions such as reindeer herding, fishing, and cross-border relations. How can we ensure that solutions to climate change do not undermine Sámis’ UN-recognized rights to land, language, and culture--all of which are interconnected? This presentation, which centers Sámi perspectives, draws upon conversations with seven Sámi people in Sápmi who represent activists, scholars, educators, reindeer herders, fishers, and artists.

13:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Farley
, Kate - Washington University in St. Louis

American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a slow-growing plant native to eastern North America that is harvested for its medicinal root. In the Appalachian mountains, searching for and harvesting wild ginseng is a popular activity as high-quality wild roots can be sold for upwards of $600 a pound. Because ginseng grows slowly and is so highly sought-after, its harvest is highly regulated. These regulations are sometimes in conflict with traditional or folk conservation methods, known locally as “good stewardship.” In this presentation, I will examine local understandings of “stewardship” and their conflicts with official regulations for wild ginseng population management. I will also address the implications of such regulations for traditional livelihood strategies among poor Appalachians. This presentation is based on data collected during 18 months of in-depth ethnographic research in North Carolina, West Virginia, and Kentucky in 2019 and 2020.

13:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Huish
, Ryan - The University of Virginia's College at Wise
Davids
, Kendall - The University of Virginia's College at Wise

Wild/tended native food and medicinal plants/fungi play valuable but often overlooked roles in agricultural systems in many world cultures and warrant serious investigation for their potential to address environmental, cultural, economic, agricultural, and food sovereignty issues. One such example is the south-central Appalachian mountain region in the United States, which represents rich biological and cultural heritage. Here, we summarize our past, present, and future research and conservation efforts working with community members from various backgrounds. These projects include measuring the size and distribution of native medicinal plant harvests and sales; investigating what “sustainable harvests” may be; implementing economic incentives for responsible harvesting; gathering supporting data for tree sap collection potentials; documenting traditional plant/fungi lexicon, uses, and perceptions; efforts to safeguard and strengthen tribal sovereignty; pursuing ethical land access to landless stakeholders; community-mediated conservation of valuable species; and other interdisciplinary efforts to preserve and promote biocultural diversity in the region.

13:34
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Welch
, James R. - Fundação Oswaldo Cruz

Most research ethics and other research authorizations must be obtained before research begins, even though it may be difficult to anticipate community understandings of ethnobiological knowledge ownership and possession that should be reflected in informed consent protocols, study methods, and publishing. In this paper, I draw broadly on my experience conducting ethnobiological, anthropological, and public health research in A’uwẽ (Xavante) villages in Central Brazil since 2004 to discuss the social contours of ethnobiological knowledge in their society. My goal is to provide an ethnographic account of numerous configurations of knowledge possession, sharing, and secrecy that shape who has (or should have) access to what kinds of information and therefore bear upon culturally appropriate informed consent. I address in detail generalized, gendered, secular age set moiety, and heritable proprietary knowledges. Most specialized A’uwẽ ethnobiological knowledge is considered secret and therefore not appropriate for scientific research and publication.

Thursday May 13, 2021

09:00 to 10:15 (Thursday)
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Collaborative Archaeological and Ethnographic Approaches to Human – Plant Interactions

Organizer/Moderator: 
Mario Zimmermann

Session Description

Despite the absence of truly agricultural societies in most of pre-Contact Western North America, ethnobotanical research in the area has yielded a bounty of information on the ways Native inhabitants have managed certain plants in the past and continue to do so at present. This symposium features a series of ongoing projects centering on the archaeological and ethnographic evidence for the manipulation and consumption of specific vegetative resources. Our speakers address topics such as traditional foods and medicine, the smoking of tobacco and non-tobacco products, and the spread of caffeinated beverages in the Americas. Access to materials under study was made possible by collaborative research schemes involving tribal partners such as the Muwekma Ohlone of California, the Coquille of Oregon, and the Kalispel of Washington. Through the active exchange of data, ideas, and perceptions, study partners can move beyond academic pursuits and discuss implications in the realm of public health, cultural and ecological stewardship.

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
09:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Asfaw, Ruelle
, Zemede, Morgan - Addis Ababa University

[The diversity of plants used within food systems signifies taxonomic richness and availability of food and other products necessary for the food system. About 25% of the Ethiopian flora is used within its food systems, including 188 cultivated species and 400 wild edibles that are directly consumed, as well as a wide array of plants used in production, storage, processing, preparation and distribution. Our review of food system plant diversity across 34 locations identified between 48 and 214 species directly consumed as food and/or used within food systems. Over 100 food system plant species were reported in 77% of study locations, although species per household rarely exceeded 20. Diversification of food crops, wild edibles and other food system species may enhance the adaptive capacity of farming communities. Agroecological and ethnobotanical research can support the conservation of food system plant agrobiodiversity to promote food security, climate resilience, and prosperity.

 

 

09:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Carney
, Molly - Washington State university
McLaughlin
, Tara - Kalispel Tribe of Indians
Endzweig
, Pamela - University of Oregon
Tushingham
, Shannon - Washington State university
d'Alpoim Guedes
, Jade - University of California at San Diego

There is substantial ethnobotanical evidence that past peoples of Western North America were and continue to be active stewards of their plant resources. Camas (Camassia spp.) is an edible, perennial geophyte common throughout north-western North America. Camas has many associated oral histories and ethnographic descriptions describing the intimate ways these plants were cared for and managed in the past. Tracking the antiquity of such practices, however, has been challenging. In this paper, we weave together TEK with archaeological and botanical data to explore Holocene relationships between people and camas, with case studies from two valleys. We found that people began experimenting with selective harvesting practices, primarily targeting sexually mature bulbs, by 3,500 BP, with bulb harvesting practices akin to ethnographic descriptions firmly established by 1,000 BP. Our findings confirm and expand upon oral histories of Indigenous traditional ecological knowledge and establish supporting evidence for contemporary restoration and food security movements.

09:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Helmer
, Elliot - Washington State University

A small, handheld bowl was recovered by the Coquille Indian Tribe from a shell midden deposit in Bandon, Oregon in 2018. Based on the morphological characteristics of the artifact, our hypothesis is that the bowl was used for grinding small quantities of plant materials, possibly for medicinal purposes. In this paper we compare residues extracted from the artifact to a range of traditional medicinal plants from the southern Oregon Coast using ancient residue metabolomics and discuss insights that these results give into ancient plant use in the region.

09:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Garvin
, Arianna - University of California-San Diego
d'Alpoim Guedes
, Jade - University of California-San Diego
Goldstein
, Paul - University of California-San Diego

The Tiwanaku civilization (ca. A.D. 500-1100) originated in the Bolivian altiplano of the south-central Andes and largely depended on frost-resistant crops, such as quinoa and potatoes. Throughout the Middle Horizon, the Tiwanaku expanded and established colonies in the Peruvian coastal valleys to acquire lowland crops, such as maize. We employ a comprehensive analysis of archaeobotanical remains from the Tiwanaku-colonial site of Cerro San Antonio in the Locumba Valley during the period of Tiwanaku state expansion. Our findings show high proportions of altiplano-associated Amaranthaceae cultivars, suggesting the Tiwanaku maintained their culinary traditions as they migrated into the valleys. We explore whether Amaranthaceae arrived via trade or were brought to the site and grown locally. The strong presence of wild and weedy Amaranthaceae seeds, along with the cultivars’ ability to adapt to various agroclimatic and edaphic conditions, lead us to argue that the Tiwanaku colonists grew the traditional foods on the frontier.

09:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Damitio
, William - Washington State University
Tushingham
, Shannon - Washington State University

Ancient residue analyses have generally relied on the identification of specific compounds—biomarkers—known to be associated with certain plant taxa (e.g., nicotine with the genus Nicotiana). Recent methodological developments in ancient residue metabolomics have allowed researchers make associations between artifacts and plants to the species level. This opens the door to a better understanding of how multiple species of the same genus are used through time, as is the case for traditional tobacco use in Northwest North America. It also allows researchers to identify associations with the large majority of plants that lack known biomarkers. In this paper, we detail chemical evidence for the use of these other plants from sites throughout the Northwest Plateau including Rhus glabra, Salvia sonomensis, Cornus sericea, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Drawing on, and sometimes contrasting with, the ethnographic record, we consider their possible uses as smoke plants in ancient contexts.

09:00 to 10:15 (Thursday)
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Fur, Feathers, and Antennae

Organizer/Moderator: 
Janelle Baker

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
09:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Chambers
, Jaime - Washington State University
Quinlan
, Robert - Washington State University
Quinlan
, Marsha - Washington State University
Evans
, Alexis - Washington State University

For thousands of years, humans have sustained complex, globally widespread relationships with dogs -- made possible through mutual capacity to form close, cooperative bonds. However, cross-cultural variation in human-dog interactions remains poorly understood. Prior ethnographic work highlights human ambivalence toward dogs, reflective of dogs’ liminal status between culture and nature (Levi-Strauss 1966; Gottlieb 1986; de Vidas 2002). To investigate cross-cultural variation in ontological perspectives surrounding dogs, this study employs the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). Through exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), variables associated with dogs as “persons” emerged in the first component. In qualitative analysis of texts associated with these variables, three primary themes emerged cross-culturally: 1) explicit designation of dogs as persons; 2) ambivalent or inconsistent personhood; and 3) lack of personhood, with connotations of sub-human status. Cross-cultural variation in ontological perspectives may reflect dogs’ diverse functions across socio-ecological contexts.

09:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Ejomah
, Afure - University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Ekhator
, Grace - University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Uyi
, Osariyekemwen - University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

The way human cultures perceive, classify and use insects is central to our understanding of the role of insects as food, and in pharmacology, religion, spirituality and cultural evolution in human societies. Using semi-structured questionnaires to elicit information, this study examined the ethnoentomlogical practices of the Bini people in southern Nigeria. Of the 150 respondents interviewed,  98.67% reported the use of insects as food, 25.33% reported the therapeutic use of insects and 77.33% reported the cultural and religious significance of insects and 19.33% reported insect use as either bait, feed for poultry and animals and as contraceptives. Four different insect species were found to be consumed, while eleven species were reported to be of therapeutic relevance. The study showed that insects have roles in myth and taboo, dreams, idioms, poems and incantations. In sum, our study document the ethnoentomological knowledge of the Bini people for the first time.

09:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Gosford
, Bob - Northern Land Council
Bonta
, Mark - N/A

In 2017 we - Bonta et al - published a paper in the Journal of Ethnobiology, (37(4):700-718) that examined a number of accounts of "firespreading" behaviour by several Australian raptor species. Those accounts were from observations by non-Aboriginal people that recorded observations of firespreading behaviour by - in the main - the Black Kite (Milvus migrans). In this presentation we will examine a number of accounts by Aboriginal people of firespreading behaviour by "Garrkan," the Brown Falcon (Falco berigora) and will discuss our preliminary observations of those accounts and consider differences between non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal firespreading observations and future resaerch proposals.

09:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Wolford
, Olivia - University of Maryland

 

In 1982, a federal bird band was attached to the leg of a sandhill crane chick in Florida; in 2019, the bird was reported dead in Wisconsin at 37 years old, making it the oldest sandhill crane in the federal Bird Banding Laboratory’s longevity records. This multispecies ethnography will draw upon the ecological, political, and social forces that shaped this sandhill cranes journey and the numerous migrations it made throughout a lifetime. The sandhill crane is one of the oldest extant birds on earth; using one bird's life, this project explores the context in which the species has emerged as the subject of contemporary scientific and cultural significance. Considering this sandhill crane’s role as part of a national project contributing to migratory bird data, the concept of animals and humans as co-producers of scientific data will be examined, discussing the cooperative perspective needed to make sense of a world facing ecological disaster. 

 

09:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Roberts
, Michelle - California State University Sacramento and University of Nevada Reno

This talk discusses traditional sustainable practices in Northern Lao PDR vis-à-vis edible insects, arguing that sustainable and traditional practices can go hand in hand. Political ecology, traditional ecological knowledge, and biological aspects of the agroecosystem are briefly discussed to exemplify the complexity of the system. Data on insect availability and selling prices in five markets across the region in December 2016, reveal Lao PDR’s economic potential and its unique position to take advantage of insect-eating traditions. International research about the low environmental costs of raising or collecting edible insects, their rich nutritional content, and other benefits and issues of insects as food sources is discussed. Traditional insect knowledge and collection has the potential to be an economic boon, benefiting farming households in the uplands by maintaining traditional agroecosystems while at the same time preserving traditional lifestyles with dignity.

10:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Baker
, Janelle - Athabasca University
Noskiye
, Helen - Bigstone Cree Nation Elder

This paper and short ethnographic film demonstrate the sakawiyiniwak (Northern Bush Cree) ethnobiological knowledge of naming and butchering the cultural keystone species mooswah, or moose (Alces alces). Bigstone Cree Nation Elders promote the linguistic continuation of sakaw nehiyawewin (northern Bush Cree language) naming of moose anatomy and the association of this knowledge with good and respectful moose butchering protocols and behaviour. We explain the significance of traditional butchering practices and demonstrate them in a short film of Helen Noskiye and her brothers butchering a moose in 2016. We have partnered with a team of scientists and Bigstone Cree Nation environmental monitors for research in which we use moose sampling kits to test them for indicators of health and contaminants, along with water sampling for microbiological analysis and toxicology related to moose and human health. We describe the community observations in changes in moose health and movements that informs this monitoring.

09:00 to 10:15 (Thursday)
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Indigenous Peoples & Local Communities and Climate Change

Organizer/Moderator: 
André Braga Junqueira

Session Description

Climate change is one of the greatest current challenges for humankind. Impacts of climate change in multiple dimensions of socio-ecological systems are increasingly acknowledged, and are expected to intensify in the future. Due to their close interaction with nature and historical marginalization, Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC) are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. On the other hand, it is also through their long-term and intimate interaction with the environment that IPLC developed their rich local ecological knowledge, which enables them to recognize, interpret and react to a changing climate and its consequences.

In this session, we will share recent advances in interdisciplinary research conducted in different regions of the globe addressing multiple dimensions of the relationships between IPLC and climate change. Particularly, we aim to advance our understanding of how lPLC perceive climate change, its drivers and its impacts on local livelihoods, what are the adaptations that are put in practice to mitigate climate change impacts, and how local ecological knowledge can be mobilized and articulated to promote resilient and healthy socio-ecological systems under a changing climate.

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
09:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Shukla
, Mirali

Community resilience in the face of drastic environmental change requires a deeper understanding of the struggles being felt most dramatically, at a local level.

Indigenous peoples have a vital role to play in environmental conservation yet are often disproportionately affected by environmental changes, human rights abuses, civil conflict, land-stakeholder issues, and more resulting from environmental disruption. Many indigenous communities live in some of the most biodiverse regions and are frontline agents of change for biodiversity conservation. Moreover, the strengths of indigenous communities as conservation and development partners include their histories, abilities, knowledge, and locally-adapted cultures.

We examine this further by interviewing members of indigenous communities globally in order to hear their perspectives and further understand how to integrate indigenous, local, and marginalized communities into the environmental discourse.

This first-person perspective, recorded discourse between members of the Finnish Sámi, Ainu, Māori, and Ni’Vanuatu communities will be compiled featuring highlights and visuals.

09:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Braga Junqueira
, André - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Fernandez-Llamazares
, Álvaro - University of Helsinki, Finland
Torrents-Ticó
, Miquel - University of Helsinki, Finland
Lokono Hara
, Paul - Member of the Daasanach community
Guol Naasak
, Job - Member of the Daasanach community
Burgas
, Daniel - University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Fraixedas
, Sara - University of Helsinki, Finland
Cabeza
, Mar - University of Helsinki, Finland
Reyes-García
, Victoria - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Changes that affect water resources are particularly relevant for subsistence-based peoples, and climate change is expected to amplify existing stresses in water availability. We look into the perceptions of environmental change expressed by the Daasanach people of North Kenya, where the impacts of climate change overlap with those brought by large infrastructure projects. Daasanach understand changes in different elements of the social-ecological system as the outcome of interactions between climatic and non-climatic drivers of change. Our results highlight the perceived synergistic effects of climate change and infrastructure projects in water resources, driving cascading impacts on local livelihoods. Local Ecological Knowledge can enhance the understanding of the impacts of environmental change in local communities. To minimize and mitigate the socio-ecological impacts of development projects, it is essential to consider potential synergies between climatic and socio-economic factors and to ensure participatory processes incorporating local understandings of environmental change.

09:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Porcher
, Vincent - ICTA-UAB LICCI and UMR SENS IRD

The local perception of climate change and the process that leads IPLCs to their adaptation strategy still unknown. However, this is crucial to grasp local responses, stakes and predict future trends. To fill this gap, we worked with Betsileo peoples (Madagascar), a group of farmers deeply impacted by seasonal shifts. We adopted a holistic approach exploring widely the concept of changes and the multiple aspects involved in Betsileo’s understanding of climate change their adaptation strategies. Our results show that for Betsileo, climate change is not only the result of a bioclimatic process but is also the consequence of people’s failure to comply with traditional rules and taboos. Consequently, to cope with climate change, Betsileos adopted a mixed adaptation strategy relying on technical and magico-religious responses. Such complex biocultural mesh must be studied with a holistic and multidisciplinary approach in order to fully understand the dynamics of local responses to climate change.

09:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Mucioki
, Megan - The Pennsylvania State University
Sowerwine
, Jennifer - University of California, Berkeley
Sarna-Wojcicki
, Daniel - University of California, Berkeley
Lake
, Frank - US Forest Service
Bourque
, Shawn - Karuk Department of Natural Resources

In the Klamath River Basin (KRB) of northern California and southern Oregon, climate-related challenges have contributed to increasingly unpredictable plant reproduction and harvest cycles. In this paper, we explore relationships between plants and Indigenous people in the KRB, identifying how climate change is influencing these social-ecological systems through the framework of cultural ecosystem services (CES) derived from Indigenous stewardship and gathering of cultural plants. This study contributes to the conceptualization of Indigenous Cultural Ecosystem Services, providing a framework for the incorporation of Indigenous concepts, approaches and perspectives into assessments of ecosystem services. It highlights the value of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) systems in understanding how climate change affects plant reproduction and productivity, and discusses how climate change has and will likely influence CES and resulting benefits. Acknowledging IK and practices as human services for ecosystems can contribute to the resilience of ecosystems and the food security and wellbeing of Indigenous communities. 

09:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Isaza
, Carolina - UNIVERSIDAD MILITAR NUEVA GRANADA/ Assistant professor
Ballesteros
, Jennifer - UNIVERSIDAD MILITAR NUEVA GRANADA/ Student

Small farmers in underdeveloped countries are inordinately affected by climate change. We address the perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change of a group of smallholders in highland Andes-Colombia. We conducted interviews with 27 smallholders. According to smallholders, climate change is manifested by an alteration in the season, amount and frequency of rainfall, frost, droughts, etc. Smallholders practiced on-farm and off-farm adaptation strategies. They practiced 14 on-farm strategies, among which the most reported were polyculture, water management and soil conservation. We also found a great diversity of crops (47 species and 79 varieties), and varied smallholder perceptions of these crops to climate variability resistance. The relevant off-farm strategies were: land tenure, more adaptation strategies applied by owners than tenants; and smallholders’ associations, sharing similar strategies. Smallholders are adapting to climate change by employing the tools that are available to them, largely without public institutional and private sector participation.

10:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Ávila
, Julia Vieira da Cunha - PhD candidate - National Research Institute for Amazonia/Mamirauá Institute
Clement
, Charles Roland - National Research Institute for Amazonia
Junqueira
, André Braga - Autonomous University of Barcelona
Ticktin
, Tamara - University of Hawaii at Manoa
Steward
, Angela May - Federal University of Pará / Mamirauá Institute

In Amazonia, changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are occurring and expected to intensify, with subsequent social and political problems. We conducted semi-structured interviews in six communities of the mid-Solimões River basin (Amazonas, Brazil), with questions designed to understand climatic patterns, changes in livelihood activities and identify their adaptation strategies in new climatic contexts. During extreme events ribeirinhos intensify adaptation strategies, such as avoiding stress to fruit-tree root systems, prioritizing plants that survive flooding and working in less affected landscapes. Some strategies are historical practices of resource management, such as building soil mounds or wooden fences to protect plants from flooding, and the temporary storage of manioc roots underwater. Ribeirinhos recognize that climatic unpredictability hinders effective planning of subsistence activities, because their local knowledge is no longer fully reliable. The documentation and sharing of some strategies was suggested as a way to increase their resilience.

10:45 to 12:00 (Thursday)
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Ethnobiology in Mexico / Etnobiología de México (Part I)

Organizer/Moderator: 
Citlally Topete

Session Description

This two-part session highlights a range of contemporary ethnobiological research in Mexico. The studies presented include: descriptions of plant and landscape usage, the significance of cultural knowledge for conservation, and the economic dimensions of natural resource exploitation. The session will feature some papers in Spanish and some in English. 

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
10:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
del Castillo Batista
, Ana Patricia - Professional

In Mexico has more than 25 thousand Considered species of wild plants and it is close to 15% Estimated are for medicinal use. In the community of Cerro Grande, in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, it to corresponds to mountain uplift of 47 thousand hectares Between Jalisco and Colima, the People who have been part of the Reserve for more than 30 years, have participated in the conservation of its biodiversity. Therefore, In this work we document through open interviews which are the wild plants, for medicinal use. Those Particularly, by the community's perception habitants, their contrasting before and after the decree in the protected area. About the 3,000 species reported by Vazquez, et al (1995) for the Flora of Manantlán. That the current estimate of the species use species is 900 and of these, medicinal plants stand out With 300 species.

10:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Topete-Corona
, Citlally - University of Guadalajara

Annona purpurea, known as “cabeza de negro”, is a tree up to 18 m high, with globose fruits up to 20 cm in diameter. It is found wild or cultivated in home gardens, at elevations below 900 m asl. Its collection and marketing takes place between the months of October and November, and its sale represents a source of income for rural families. The sale of the fruit is carried out in established stalls and in markets. Its cost is variable and depends on the size of the fruit and the place where the sale is made. The amount of fruits collected per person ranges from 200 to 1800. Its roots and bark are reported with medicinal use and the leaves are used to wrap cheeses and panelas. Annona purpurea has its greatest structural attributes in places with higher rainfall and temperature, with less stony ground. Its greatest association is with Guazuma ulmifolia.

11:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Aguilar-Meléndez
, Araceli - Centro de Investigaciones Tropicales, Universidad Veracruzana
Katz
, Esther - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, IRD-FRANCE
Vásquez-Dávila
, Marco Antonio - Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca
Manzanero-Medina
, Gladys Isabel - CIIDIR-Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Unidad Oaxaca

The importance of chiles to Mexicans has been discussed by researchers of different disciplines, who consider that domesticated chiles are essential ingredients providing diversity to everyday and festive food. However, little is known about the range of uses of the different domesticated landraces, of commercial domesticated chiles, as well as wild chiles. Through fieldwork and literature review, we developed a matrix of botanical and cultural data related to the uses of chiles to identify species and domestication status of the genus Capsicum in the multi-ethnic Mexican territory. We found a wide range of uses in different cultures of the 11 linguistic families, ranging from edible and medicinal to protective and healing of the soul. The objective of this presentation is to highlight the interconnectivity between chiles and local cultural values, beliefs, practices and language and show how this link may have been the main incentive for the conservation of landraces up to the present.

11:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Pech-Cardenas
, Florencia - University of Minnesota

Tourism activities at Chichen Itza, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Yucatán, México have opened up opportunities for wooden handicraft production and commerce. Scholars have widely explored the impacts of tourism and handicraft production in Pisté, the central tourist town close to Chichén Itzá, but little has been done to explore handicraft production from the perception of Maya artisans from the surrounding communities. The purpose of this study is to explore artisans’ perceptions of handicraft production as a base of knowledge for understanding how handicraft production relates to livelihoods and natural resources management in a Maya community. The consideration of motivations and challenges among artisans might help to implement development policies that fulfill artisans’ needs, improve their livelihoods, and promote the use of sustainable wood carving species.

11:34
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Alsgaard
, Asia - University of New Mexico

Around the world during the transition to agriculture, coastal populations often persist as hunter-gatherers for longer periods of time than inland populations in the same region. Archaeological research indicates the Soconusco coast in Chiapas, Mexico is no exception; in this region, the Chantuto society, known by multiple shellmounds, subsisted as fisher-hunter-horticulturalists even as inland populations began to adopt maize-based agriculture. This presentation reexamines previously published fauna data from five shellmounds (7,500-3800 BP) surrounding the Acapetahua Estuary using measures of abundance and diversity to address how coastal resource stability contributed to the persistence of a hunter-gatherer life style. These data provide the basis for my dissertation project that focuses on the stability of coastal foraging practices of the Chantuto society in the Acapetahua Estuary with implications for the present day ecological stability of the Estuary.

10:45 to 12:00 (Thursday)
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Philosophy of Ethnobiology

Organizer/Moderator: 
David Ludwig

Session Description

Ethnobiology is a transdisciplinary field that brings together the knowledge of diverse actors from Indigenous and local communities to natural and social sciences. While this diversity of knowledge is crucial for engaging with socio-environmental change, it also raises complex questions about conflicting epistemologies, ontologies, and values. Philosophy of science has become increasingly concerned with ethnobiological research (Byskov 2020, Kendig 2020, Ludwig and El Hani 2020, Villagómez-Reséndiz 2020, Weiskopf 2020) in addressing issues such as knowledge diversity in biology, the prospects of knowledge integration, and the entanglement of taxonomies and values. The aim of this session is to take this “new philosophy of ethnobiology” back into the ethnobiology community to discuss its potential contributions to methodological and theoretical debates of the field. In particular, the talks will focus on interdisciplinary negotiation of ethnobiological research methods, the structure of dialogues between heterogeneous actors, and the relations between naming practices and taxonomies beyond a simple dichotomy of universalism vs. relativism. 

Ludwig: The new philosophy of ethnobiology - what’s in it for ethnobiologists? 

Nieves Delgado: From epistemic pluralism to interdisciplinary work in ethnobiology

Bollettin: “Ethno” and “Biology": Anthropological notes on multiple dialogues in knowledge practices

El Hani: Learning from dialoguing with and integrating Indigenous/peasant and academic knowledge systems 

Renck: Applying partial overlaps in ethnobiological studies in a Brazilian fishing community

Kendig: Philosophy of ethnolichenological naming practices

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
10:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Renck
, Vitor - Federal University of Bahia / Wageningen University & Research

I will explore the partial overlaps framework between traditional and academic knowledge in a fishing community in northeast Brazil. Through a mixed-methods study involving triad tasks and ethnobiological models, I analyze local categories and knowledge about salient ethnospecies of fish. Overlaps between traditional and academic knowledge provide common ground for transdisciplinary collaboration, while their partiality requires reflection about epistemological and ontological differences. Partialities also demand a reflective political positioning of a researcher with regard to the self-determination of the community. By distinguishing between different forms of partiality, we show how knowledge of artisanal fishers can complement academic researchers’ knowledge, but can also bring about tensions that need to be addressed through intercultural dialogue. By integrating a general philosophical framework of partial overlaps with a mixed-methods study on fishers’ knowledge, we show how ethnobiology can contribute to theoretically-reflective and empirically-grounded transdisciplinary practices.

10:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Nieves Delgado
, Abigaiil - Wageningen University

Ethnobiology is a multidisciplinary science which includes fields such as ecology, evolution, political ecology, traditional medicine, and indigenous rights, to mention a few. At the core lies the study of those complex relations and dynamics of social-ecological systems in which local knowledges is central. However, this intrinsic multidisciplinary nature of ethnobiology has resulted in the fragmentation of the field. Recently, a new integrative conceptual framework, drawing on evolutionary theory, has been introduced to address and resolve this fragmentation. In this paper we discuss this model and evaluate its potential contribution to unify ethnobiology. We argue that the adoption of an adaptationist framework does not suffice to account for the complexity and range of ethnobiological phenomena. We present a model for transdisciplinary work inspired by the work of Rolando García. In this model, the open dialogue of epistemic and non-epistemic values is central for defining a transdisciplinary research question.  

11:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
El-Hani
, Charbel N. - Federal University of Bahia, University of Coimbra, INCT IN-TREE

Proposals for knowledge integration between traditional (TEK) and academic ecological knowledge (AEK) became common in theory and practice, especially in relation to conservation and sustainable management. One cannot avoid complex philosophical questions related to such proposals, which lie, according to Ludwig and El-Hani, at the core of a philosophy of ethnobiology and involve epistemological, ontological, ethical, and political challenges. These challenges can be addressed from a “framework of partial overlaps”, avoiding both over-optimistic and pessimistic attitudes towards knowledge integration in order to find a space for mutual learning between knowledge systems through analyzing both overlaps and divergences in ontological, epistemological and axiological domains. I will discuss how learning can be conceived in the contact zone between knowledge systems, i.e., how we can learn from each other in such intercultural situations both in the case of overlaps or when we are faced with radical alterity in ontological, epistemological and/or axiological terms.

11:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Ludwig
, David

Philosophy of science is increadingly recognizing ethnobiology as a transdisciplinary field that raises complex methodological questions about the negotiation of epistemologies, ontologies, and values. This talk focuses on the question what ethnobiologists can learn from this emergence of a "New Philosophy of Ethnobiology". Ethnobiological research commonly remains descriptive without clearly communicating its methodological relevance to wider communities in fields such as cultural anthropology, sustainability studies, or biological systematics. Looking at issues of (a) transdisciplinary design, (b) intercultural communication, and (c) taxonomy, this talk introduces the overall session and the relevance of philosophy in positioning ethnobiological insights in debates about socio-ecological change.

11:34
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Kendig
, Catherine - Michigan State University, Department of Philosophy

The language of the Sàmi of Northern Finnmark reflects specialized knowledge of the environment and of their relationship with the animals that they herd. The Sàmi have specialized names for the lands on which they graze their reindeer as well as for the various lichen species that can be found within these lands. These names allow them to differentiate between lichens that grow at different times during the season and between those that the reindeer eat, which they prefer, which they avoid, and which they are willing to eat in times of scarcity. I suggest these ethnolichenological naming practices can be understood as different ways of reaching out into the world to linguistically grasp that which is of interest for a particular purpose. Linguistically grasping implies an ecologically extended kind-making interaction where interactionism involves both the object of interest as well as the ontological commitments of kind-makers, namers and kind-users.

11:46
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Bollettin
, Paride - Universidade Federal da Bahia

The presentation aims at describing some ways ethnobiologists correlate the concepts of “ethno” and “biology” in the production and sharing of their knowledge practices, having as a starting point ethnographic cases from a research conducted in Conde, Northeast of Brazil. I will describe how a variety of relations produced between the two concepts flows in the field, in the academy, and in the middle of these two inseparable limits. The focus on ethnographically grounded knowledge-practices lets a panorama of epistemological, pragmatical and ethical possibilities to emerge. The thesis is that the “and”, at multiplying the possible interfaces between the “ethno” and the “biological”, as experimented multiple dimensions can share lights on the interrelational web connecting knowledge, people, practices, politics,other-than-human beings, etc. Finally, I will appoint at some possible consequences of the diverse ways “ethno” and “biology” can be related toward symmetrical and collaborative dialogues.

10:45 to 12:00 (Thursday)
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Tribes of the Southwest & their connections to ethnobotany

Organizer/Moderator: 
Autumn Gillard

Session Description

This session will be centered around tribal people in the southwest and their views of ethnobotany and how the connection to plants solidifies the cultural connection to mother earth as well as traditional beliefs. Topics covered can be plant uses be it medicinal, mechanical, and edible varieties, traditional language about plants, astronomy connections to plant life and cultural beliefs centered around plant life such as songs and dances. This session will invite attendees to learn about these views from Native people of the southwest and those that work closely with the tribes in the areas of ethnobotany, anthropology, and archeology.This session will be centered around tribal people in the southwest and their views of ethnobotany and how the connection to plants solidifies the cultural connection to mother earth as well as traditional beliefs. Topics covered can be plant uses be it medicinal, mechanical, and edible varieties, traditional language about plants, astronomy connections to plant life and cultural beliefs centered around plant life such as songs and dances. This session will invite attendees to learn about these views from Native people of the southwest and those that work closely with the tribes in the areas of ethnobotany, anthropology, and archeology.

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
10:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Paya
, Jorigine - Hualapai Tribe

The Hualapai, like many Tribes, lost a significant amount of our traditional homelands, and lifeways through the colonization efforts of the last two centuries.  Many of the elders in the community are from a generation that was the last to experience the traditinal lifeways growing up.  Much of the languae and ethnobotanical work I particpate in, in the community is through our Hualapai Ethnobotany Youth Project where we have a fieldtrip oriented, harvesting based program focused on traditional knowledge and tribal language transmission.  Undertanding where plants grow, harvesting seasons, useable plant parts, and processing methodologies are all significant components to the programming we provide to keep the ethobotanical knowledge vital.  In being a lifelong teacher in the community, I have used traditional forms of singing to transmit crucial Hualapai knowledge. In this presentation I will share the value of Hualapai song as a traditional teaching tool.

10:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Gillard
, Autumn - Southern Utah University/ Tribal affiliation

To early archeologist and anthropologists, a common theory was that the Southern Paiute people were strictly set as hunter gathers evolving into a more sedentary culture upon Euro-American introduction. To the Southern Paiute people, they have always had the talent and knowledge of growing crops in the arid environment of the southwest. Passing down oral history of growing gardens in a traditional three sisters style adopted from their ancestors the Ancestral Puebloan people. These life skills were achieved by communicating with the sky and stars as well as the plants and seeds that would grow to produce and sustain tribal band members throughout the seasons. This presentation offers a viewpoint from a Southern Paiute perspective to the connection of gardening, astronomy, and spring utilization.  

11:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Hodgson
, Wendy - Desert Botanical Garden
Salywon
, Andrew - Desert Botanical Garden

Research on the significance of agaves to indigenous peoples in the Borderlands region reveals that pre-contact farmers grew at least six or more domesticated agaves in Arizona. Because of their longevity and asexual reproduction, relict agave clones have persisted in the landscape to the present, providing an opportunity to study pre-Columbian nutrition, trade, migration and agricultural practices as well as domesticates unchanged since they were last cultivated within a prehistoric cultural context. Several of these unique multi-useful plants grow together at many sites that occur in different ecological, climatological and biogeographical regions inhabited by different cultures, including Huhugam, Patayan, Sinagua and Ancestral Puebloan peoples. Our research emphasizes the need to view landscapes and plant species from a potentially cultural, rather than “natural,” perspective that may help discern potential cryptic species veiled by traditional taxonomic treatments. Understanding these plants and their ecological/cultural roles requires interdisciplinary collaboration.

11:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Sabata
, David

Archaeologists are largely responsible for documenting the “cultural” significance of places. Archaeology, however, is just one aspect of site significance. In the semi-arid southwestern US, water-sources, such as springs, and the biodiversity supported by them, have attracted human presence and cultivation behavior for over 10,000 years, resulting in archaeology and increased biodiversity. As an archaeologist, I first became aware of the cultural significance of water-sources and biodiversity while working with traditional Paiute elders in southwest Utah. That work inspired me to return to school at Northern Arizona University to better learn Indigenous perspectives about the importance of the natural world. Supported by the Bureau of Land Management at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, I visited about 75 semi-arid springs over two seasons, recorded plants of traditional edible, medicinal, craft, and ceremonial significance, documented archaeology, and compared data with upland places. The results demonstrate important relationships between water, biodiversity, and archaeology.

11:34
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Salywon
, Andrew - Desert Botanical Garden
Hodgson
, Wendy - Desert Botanical Garden
Doelle
, William - Archaeology Southwest

The Hohokam extensively cultivated agave in dry-farmed fields on terraces above watercourses in central and southern Arizona from ca. A.D. 800–1450. Very few of these agaves remain and those that have been found are believed to be putative domesticates as they are not know from the wild. We recently described one of these remnant agaves from along the San Pedro River as the new species Agave sanpedroensis. While studying A. sanpedroensis we found another very rare agave growing in association with archaeological features that to us seems to be another new, undescribed species. We have yet to observe this taxon in flower, however the leaves are very similar to both A. sanpedroensis and A. phillipsiana and molecular data from plastome sequences support this relationship. Flow cytometry data indicate that these three taxa are triploid which may indicate past hybridization events and/or strong human selection.

11:46
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Cannon
, Carrie - Hualapai Tribe

Hualapai Tribal Elder, the late Malinda Powskey was a prominent keeper of the tribal plant knowledge. She grew up near Wikieup AZ where the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts converge.  Here she learned harvesting wild plants and the traditional gardening practices.  "Stubborn, that's the word for me," Powskey once said about herself. "I ran away from the boarding school at Fort Apache when I was thirteen.  Walked for three days. Then I went to Kingman High--there were hardly any Indians there then. I raised my kids, and then I went to college. I only finished because I am stubborn."  Malinda was also a former Tribal Council Member, taught K-12 for over a decade at the reservation school where she co-authored ten bilingual publications that were written for the Hualapai/Bilingual education program which feature a rich ethnobotanical curriculum in the 1970's-2000.  This presentation honors her memory and contributions to language and ethnobotanical revitalization.

10:45 to 12:00 (Thursday)
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Visioning a Diverse, Equitable, and Inclusive SEB: Seeking partnerships with SoE and ISE

Organizer/Moderator: 
Ashley Glenn

Session Description

The Society for Economic Botany (SEB) recently formed a new subcommittee to address issues related to diversity, equity and inclusion (defined broadly). In our first meetings, we discussed the need to value and prioritize all kinds of diversity; recognize persistent colonial structures and systemic racism; uplift voices of those who have been sidelined, ignored and oppressed; and work proactively in service of social justice within our society and society-at-large. As our committee embarks on a process of recognition, reparation, and transformation, we are looking to partner with sister societies like SoE and ISE to help us identify and address these issues through our organizations and disciplines. The goals of this roundtable will be to listen and learn from each other’s experiences, to shape our missions and to identify specific actions to address these challenges. We hope to engage the SoE and ISE ethics committees to consider what we can achieve as a collective and that members of all three societies will contribute to this discussion. One possible outcome to explore is the feasibility of forming an intersocietal working group and platform.

13:00 to 15:30 (Thursday)
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Poster Session

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Sekulić
, Annalee - The Ohio State University

As climates change, environmental resources for subsistence are altered. Human responses include social changes that feedback into desert vegetation. Anthropogenic activity alters the vegetation present in the plant assemblages. This study tests the hypothesizes that there are vegetation changes within the Dhofar, Oman over the past 3,500 BP and that the assemblages can capture anthropogenic indicators.

From 45 hyrax middens samples, I extracted identifiable macrofossils. I used incident light microscopy and a digital camera to compare specimens with modern reference. By identifying the fragmented macrobotanical and comparing them to known anthropogenic plant indicators, I will assess the past vegetation and assembles’ ability to identify anthropogenic effects. 

My analysis finds there is no large structural change with the vegetation but change within the composition of taxa. The comparisons between proxy records suggest that the vegetation developed for stable arid climates, showing the presence of human activity. 

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Schierbeek
, Elizabeth - George Mason University
Pagliarulo McCarron
, Graziella - George Mason University
Gilmore
, Michael - George Mason University

An important component of biocultural conservation is ensuring the voices of Indigenous Peoples are heard by those with the power to influence change. Here we present community position statements as tools for amplifying the perspectives of Indigenous communities. We highlight a community-based project conducted with the Maijuna and Kichwa of the Peruvian Amazon, from which a multilingual position statement was developed. The statement leverages Indigenous and Western knowledge systems and speaks out against a proposed road project threatening Maijuna and Kichwa ancestral lands and lifeways. Through this case study, we explore the power of position statements to achieve contextually-rooted, socially just outcomes in biocultural conservation processes and products. Given the potential for community position statements to empower communities, bridge knowledge systems, inspire collective action, and defend Indigenous cultures and lifeways, we feel they should play an important role in biocultural conservation and ethnobiological research and advocacy.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Abioye
, Felicia - Obafemi Awolowo University

This study was designed to contribute to the existing data on four different species of genus Tephrosia namely Tephrosia candida, Tephrosia linearis, Tephrosia bracteolata and Tephrosia leptostachya, which has been widely regarded as being complicated in terms of taxonomic delimitation. Different approaches such as visual screening, micromorphological assessment and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol were used to study their gross morphology, leaf epidermal morphology, petiole anatomy, leaf venation and genomic DNA characteristics. It was observed that gross morphological characteristics differ between the species. Similarly, variations were observed in their leaf epidermal properties especially, their stomata types although species show similarities in hypostomaty and petiole length and anatomy. The study further revealed the degree of closeness of the species on account of genomic DNA concentrations and emphasizes the importance of DNA studies in taxonomic delimitation.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Myers
, Kimberly - Georgia State University

The story of Homo sapiens and the genus Canis constitute some of the most evolutionarily unique and fascinating polyspecific relationships in the animal kingdom. The most discussed is that of Homo and some now extinct species of Old World wolves, who cheated extinction (~40-20,000 YBP) by becoming dogs. In an entirely different way, the destiny of a resilient New World canid, Canis latrans, the coyote, seems to have also been irrevocably bound to that of humans for at least ~15 Kya. Despite over a century of human persecution and the “lethal control” of millions of coyotes implemented by federal and state bodies, their populations continue to expand, and they are now found in every major N. American city. This situation provides researchers with the unique opportunity to study a wild canid that not only defied extermination but thrives in fragmented anthropogenic settings and may improve urban biodiversity.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Griffiths
, Brian - George Mason University
Bowler
, Mark - University of Suffolk
Gilmore
, Michael - George Mason University

Hunting is a key subsistence strategy and source of income and food security for rural communities throughout the world. Hunters often gift game meat to their friends or family in return for reciprocation, or other social benefits. We used interviews to assess how hunters in an Amazonian Indigenous community navigate the economic, subsistence, and social aspects of hunting. We found that hunters typically sell the most valuable and preferred species whole except for the head, gift better cuts of less-preferred species and consume the lowest quality portions of non-preferred species. We conclude that hunters use species and portions of carcasses differentially to maximize profit and food security and fit the social norms of the community. Understanding the social systems surrounding wild game use in rural Amazonian communities provides insight into how the loss of wild mammals could influence food security and social relationships.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Stroth
, Luke - UC, San Diego
Borrero
, Mario - UC, San Diego
Braswell
, Geoffrey E. - UC, San Diego

In this poster, we present the results of analysis of the paleobotanical collection from Nim li Punit (AD 150/250 to 830+), Toledo District, Belize. These samples were collected from Structure 50, a Late Classic (AD 700 to 830+) elite domestic context. The eighth century is a time of growth and prosperity at Nim li Punit, seeing major construction efforts and seven carved monuments. What were elite diet and lifeways like during this time? Preliminary results indicate that the diet of the inhabitants of Structure 50 was similar to that of contemporary elite Maya, with an emphasis on local resources. The sample also contains presence of nightshades used as luxury condiments, purgatives, and/or hallucinogens. Future excavations at Nim li Punit will expand our dataset, showing how diets varied from the Early Classic to the Late Classic, and within the site itself.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Solís Magallanes
, Arturo - Centro Universitario de la Costa Sur. Universidad de Guadalajara

 

 

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Courtney
, Sofi - University of Washington, Seattle

Indigenous eco-cultural revitalization is increasingly recognized as integral to producing sustainable outcomes in restoration ecology and climate adaptation. However, Indigenous lifeways are rarely incorporated into restoration ecology research. Using reciprocity and critical physical geography as a foundation, researchers from the University of Washington are co-developing a research framework with partners from the Karuk Tribe that centers Indigenous worldviews and environmental justice into river restoration ecology. We are applying this framework to a pressing conservation issue--dam removal and riparian vegetation restoration in the Klamath River basin. My part in this larger effort is to investigate the impacts of community stewardship on vegetation change over time at a key cultural site. Here, I will report on the initial phases of this project, including collaborative research development with Karuk cultural practitioners as well as spatial analysis and experimental methods that focus on cultural use, knowledge co-generation, and Karuk self-determination.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Vochatzer
, Karl - Southern Utah University

Wood smoke contains many pollutants (e.g., particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene, acrolein, and hydrocarbons) that can damage health when inhaled. With wood as the primary fuel source, smoke from indoor cooking over traditional open fires is a leading contributor to health problems in the developing world. To address these effects, vented stoves were introduced as a means of improving indoor air quality to therefore improve the health of rural Guatemalans. Although studies show positive health improvements with vented stove usage, not all demonstrate statistically significant results when compared to controls. Given this, why is it that stove intervention studies have not demonstrated more pronounced effects for reducing health problems when indoor air pollutants are cut to a fraction of the levels measured for cooking over traditional open fires? This paper addresses the literature, explores potential reasons that stove interventions may not do enough, and recommends a holistic approach for further action.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Carney
, Molly - Washington State university
d'Alpoim Guedes
, Jade - University of California at San Diego
Clements
, William - Princeton University
Diedrich
, Melanie - Archaeological Macroflora Identification
Tushingham
, Shannon - Washington State university

Archaeobotanical and ethnobotanical information can be used in a variety of ways to strengthen cultural identity, improve human health and well-being, identify and re-learn traditional ecological knowledge, and inform modern restoration ecology and land management decisions. In the northwest region of North America, however, the carbonized remains in paleobotanical assemblages are difficult to identify. Here we share an online website and database designed to document and share ethnobotanical knowledge and paleobotanical identification criteria. The website is designed using the Murkurtu platform, which is specifically built around sharing and protecting traditional knowledge across social groups and preserving multivocal epistemologies. Users can add protocols which grant various levels of access to digital materials and adapted to local communities’ needs. The ethnobotanical information in this digital “work in progress” has the potential to contribute to future archaeological and interdisciplinary investigations as well as human-plant relationships in the past and in the future.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Vanier
, Sage - Simon Fraser University
Ritchie
, Morgan - Sts'ailes Nation
Lepofsky
, Dana - Simon Fraser University
Lawrence
, Darius - Sts'ailes Nation
Basran
, Kiran - Sts'ailes Nation
Armstrong
, Chelsey - Simon Fraser University

Globally, archaeological sites tend to be associated with plant communities that reflect past land use practices. On the Northwest Coast of North America, forest gardens, anthropogenic legacy ecosystems, are characterized by high concentrations of perennial fruit and nut trees and shrubs, herbaceous root food crops, and medicines. For the Sts’ailes Nation in southern British Columbia, such ecosystem legacies are evident around ancient settlements nestled between sloughs along the Harrison River. In collaboration with a Sts’ailes eco-cultural restoration project, we explore the historical ecology of one such area by using a variety of methods including vegetation surveys, soil charcoal, GPS mapping, historical air photos, tree coring, and interviews with Sts'ailes knowledge-holders. Our results show that culturally important tree species are at least 130 years old, while archaeological evidence indicates that people have occupied this spot for at least 2500 years. Interviews demonstrate connections to place, and management which continues today.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Gosford
, Bob - Northern Land Council

The ethnobiological sub-discipline of ethnoornithology has been the focus of increased research over the past decade and more and in this presentation I will propose a co-operative project to establish an Ethnoornithological Bibliography to record ethno-ornithological research conducted to date and in the future. Such a bibliography would be useful for both emergent and mid-career ethnoornithologists (and others with an interest in related disciplines) as it would provide a resource for future research projects and assist with the dissemination of knowledge about ethnoornithological research that has been done, or is underway or proposed, across the globe. In this presentation I will discuss the bibliographic resource I have developed for Australian ethnoornithology and the material from other global regions I have gathered to date, provide some initial thoughts about how such a resource might be structured and will propose options for a collaborative project that would provide a valuable resource for future ethnoornithological research.

Presentation format: 
Poster display (live)
Author(s):
Miltenburg
, Elisabeth - University of Guelph

Indigenous Peoples across Turtle Island have sustained themselves since time immemorial through thriving local place-based food systems. There is an emerging movement of Indigenous food sovereignty (IFS) initiatives taking place in Grand River Territory, located in present-day southwestern Ontario, Canada. Indigenous participants engaged in local IFS initiatives were interviewed (n=7) to explore how the urban environment impacts local IFS efforts and discussed opportunities to strengthen this work. Thematic analysis revealed IFS initiatives centered around Land-based knowledge and relationships. The urban environment impacts access to land, which can pose as a challenge for IFS initiatives to flourish. Despite this, land and food-based practices are being implemented in the city to grow, harvest, process and distribute food in community through acts of reciprocity that honour relationships and responsibility to the land.  These efforts demonstrate a pathway towards Indigenous self-determination and resurgence in colonized spaces.

15:00 to 16:15 (Thursday)
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Fowl as Food: Rules, Obligations and Ceremonies

Organizer/Moderator: 
Marco Antonio Vásquez-Dávila

Session Description

What makes some birds edible and others inedible? What determines which birds are hunted or domesticated? Hunting birds is not a simple matter of finding and killing them. Many cultures have rules for preparing to hunt that involve abstinence, fasting, and ceremonies. Domestic birds are also connected with ceremonies to enhance the flock or protect the birds. Ceremonies demonstrate reciprocal obligations between birds and humans. What are the rules for sharing? What overlap is there between edible and medicinal birds? What of wild birds that are captured and then raised for food? The papers in this session explore these and other aspects of relationships with birds that are killed and eaten, and the obligations and responsibilities associated with hunting and raising birds for food. These include turkeys, ducks, chickens, grouse, and parrots.

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
15:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Anderson
, Eugene - University of California, Riverside

The Yucatec Maya of Quintana Roo know and recognize over a hundred species of birds.  Three are common domesticates.  Several larger wild birds are occasional game birds.  Many species are kept as pets.  Some birds, largely nocturnal, are evil omens.  Others are used in love magic.  All birds except the worst omens are appreciated and considered delightful.  This paper will concentrate on food uses of domestic and game birds. 

15:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Martínez-Betancourt
, Julio Ismael - Jardín Botánico Nacional, Universidad de La Habana, Cuba

In Cuban religions with African antecedents (mainly in the Orisa Religion), fowl are offered to the deities and eaten by the participants in post-ritual festivities. The objective of this presentation is to describe and analyze the relationship of birds with deities and humans, their Yoruba names, used part and form of use. Information was obtained through open-ended interviews to religious practitioners and participant observation. Birds and their consecrated deities are: roosters (Phasianidae) to Eleguá, white pigeons (Columbidae) to Obatala, yellow hens to Oṣun, black hens to Orúnmila, ducks (Anatidae) to Yemayá and guinea fowl (Numididae) to Babalú Ayé. The bird corresponding to each deity has a close archetypal relationship with it, either by color, habitat or its role in cosmogonic or etiological myths. Other structures and fluids involved in rituals are feathers, eggs, viscera and blood. When birds are used in ritual cleansing, they are not consumed by people.

15:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Manzanero-Medina
, Gladys Isabel - CIIDIR-Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Unidad Oaxaca
Vásquez Dávila
, Marco Antonio - Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca

Iztapalapa is located in the Valley of Mexico in the basin of Lake Texcoco, a brackish water lake. In this Nahuatl territory there were chinampas from pre-Hispanic times until the mid-twentieth century. Vegetables, flowers, corn and beans were grown in these man-made islets. In these lands and in the shallow waters of the lake various migratory water birds were trapped or hunted for food purposes (e.g., ducks, chichicuilotes, geese and coots). The ornithological gastronomy of Iztapalapa was and continues to be very diversified in terms of the use of wild and domesticated birds. Nowadays, pipianes and moles (both red and green) are complex dishes that can contain duck, goose, turkey or chicken meat. Before the desiccation of the lake occurred and the government expropriated the chinampas, the coots and chichicuilotes were consumed. In this paper we will talk about these recipes and their permanence in the current cuisine of Iztapalapa.

15:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Ignace
, Ronald - Simon Fraser University and Skeetchestn Indian Band (Secwepemc Nation)
Ignace
, Marianne - Simon Fraser University and Skeetchestn Indian Band (Secwepemc Nation)

In the Secwepemc way of thinking of, and interacting with, spel̓̓qwéqs (Bald Eagles) and spi7úy (Golden Eagles) on our land, we first must think back to what our ancient stories, stsptekwll, tell us about human-eagle interactions. They involve people-eating eagles, our ancient transformers vanquishing their powers, and marking the beginning of eagle feathers becoming signs of human power, truthfulness, and chiefly authority.  How can we make sense of these stories? Beyond face-values, in both physical ways of species interactions and holistic and metaphysical ways of how our ancestors construed interrelations, what do they tell us about our ancestors‘ interactions with Eagles as animals, but also as powerful beings on the land? In this paper we will explore Secwepemc-Eagle interactions, their symbolism, what Eagles and humans consume, and how this guides us into the future as we hope to continue to coexist with them. 

15:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Hull
, Kerry - Brigham Young University
Fergus
, Rob - Department of Geography, Planning, and Sustainability: Rowan University

For the Ch’orti’ Maya of southern Guatemala, turkeys are the most sacred and revered of birds. In this paper, we explain the mythological underpinnings that elevate the turkey in Ch’orti’ society. We link the mythic execution of the god Katata’, whose avatar is the turkey, to agricultural rituals among Ch’orti’ Maya. We show how these field ceremonies are re-enactments of the moment the God of Agriculture was sacrificed in distant times. We further argue that the act of pouring turkey blood into holes in the four corners and center of the cornfield symbolically “impregnates” the field, representing the moment germination occurs to create a fecund field. Turkey blood “animates” the ground, by “feeding” the Earth God, which is likely an extension of the symbolism of turkey blood and corn among the Ch’orti’. Finally, place turkey in a larger ritual context by describing their use as food in various other ceremonies.

16:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Vásquez Dávila
, Marco Antonio - Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca
Vásquez-Cruz
, Rosalinda - Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca
Cruz-Jacinto
, Marco A. - Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca
Manzanero-Medina
, Gladys Isabel - CIIDIR-Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Unidad Oaxaca

The incorporation of birds in the human diet dates from prehistory and it is a common practice worldwide. To obtain birds, our ancestors began hunting birds and collecting eggs; subsequently they invented poultry farming. The turkey was domesticated in pre-Hispanic Mexico and later native cultures incorporated chickens as food in the 16th century. The fowl eaten in Oaxaca are domestic and wild: chickens, turkeys, ducks, chachalacas, pigeons, quail, among others. The ethnic territory inhabited by the Huaves, Chontales and Zapotecos is the Sierra Sur and the Pacific coast and there is a birdlife historically shared by them. Each cultural tradition makes differential use of birds. Chontales, known for their hunting tradition, use more birds (n = 13) than Zapotec farmers (n = 10) and these, in turn, eat more birds than the Huave fishermen (n = 6). In summary, Mesoamerican societies eat fowl according to their cultural traditions.

15:00 to 16:15 (Thursday)
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Historical Ethnoecology in Practice

Organizer/Moderator: 
Chelsey Geralda Armstrong

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
15:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Obari
, Mariko - University of Tsukuba

To understand agroecology’s configuration of human and non-human relations, one requires an interdisciplinary and holistic approach. Since agroecologists claim that the conservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity go hand in hand, agroecology invites study through the lens of anthropology. Agroforestry is one of the significant practices of agroecology, which is a land-use system integrating forestry and agriculture. Japan has a longstanding history of using forest resources for farming, as traditional settlements are usually surrounded by forests and mountains. One could argue that there is no clear boundary between forests and farms in Japanese agroecosystems. This research examines such agroecosystems in rural Japan, with reference to my ethnographic fieldwork in a satoyama village in the Ibaraki Prefecture. With the discussion of how people give names to farms and plants, the study will explore how the sustainability of local food system is pursued in the time of coronavirus crisis.

15:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Pierotti
, Raymond - University of Kansas, Lawrence

In recent years there have been attempts to examine Ethnobiology from an evolutionary perspective. I discuss several potential sources of confusion in applying Evolutionary concepts to Ethnobiology. There has been little acknowledgment of how the field of biological evolution is changing in the 21st Century. In this presentation I focus on Niche Construction, a 21st century concept that argues that organisms shape their own environments along with those of other species. This concept can be considered in terms of the Creation stories of Indigenous Peoples, which emphasize the role of ecosystem processes. This creates a new way of looking at how Natural Selection can act upon how multiple organisms impact the survival and existence of other species. I discuss an example from Western Science that illustrates how a single organism, recognized as a creator by Indigenous Nations can transform an ecosystem through niche construction.

15:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Main Johnson
, Leslie - Athabasca University

Snowshoes enable travel over land and frozen waterways in places with substantial winter snow. Without snowshoes, hunting and other subsistence activities, travel and trade would be difficult or impossible in the winter season.  Extending earlier ethnographic work, I have examined snowshoes in museum collections over the past few years to get a better sense of factors influencing snowshoe design in Northwestern North America. I present results that show association of snowshoe design with specific cultures, with varying landscapes, with different types of use, ages and gender, with available materials, and over the time of record (in western North America from the first half of the 19th Century through the early 21st Century).  With the introduction of the snow machine, and with contemporary synthetic materials this formerly essential technology is in danger of disappearance, although traditional snowshoes remain iconic of the North and of Canada.

15:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Armstrong
, Chelsey Geralda - Simon Fraser University

Land-use scientists increasingly recognize that ecological and anthropogenic forces have long interacted in complex ways, forming many of the landscapes we observe today. In the Pacific Northwest, historical land-use has resulted in Indigenous forest gardens: ecosystems dominated by edible fruit, nut, and berry producing trees and shrubs and managed by Indigenous peoples in the past and which continue to grow at archaeological village sites today. This presentation will provide an overview of forest garden ethnoecology, archaeology, paleoethnobotany, and functional ecology at two village sites in Gitselasu (Ts’msyen) and Sts’ailes (Coast Salish) communities (in so-called British Columbia). This relatively new research contributes to a growing body of evidence which reveals the ways in which humans can have positive effects on their lived landscapes and supports descendant communities seeking to re-integrate land-based foodways and livelihoods in unprecedented times.

15:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Heckelsmiller
, Cynthiann - Washington State University
Lightner
, Aaron - Washington State University

 

In the semi-arid forests and savannahs of East Africa, Maasai pastoralists tend bees as well as cattle. Men collect and ferment honey with various plant materials to make enaisho namuka, honey wine. Using participant observation and ethnographic interviews from our 2020 field work with a Maasai community in Northeast Tanzania, we build on historical accounts to present the modern production and use of honey wine. Production requires detailed ecological knowledge to harvest honey and prepare the brew. Beyond the medicinal value of its ingredients, we also examine the social and ecological relationships the beverage represents within Maasai communities. Particularly, we use examples of how people use drinking the brew as an occasion to connect members of the community, often to smooth over disputes between members of opposing agesets. As social and environmental changes introduce new challenges to a conservatively traditional society, we discuss the role of honey wine in negotiating cultural and environmental changes.

16:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Kulkarni
, Apoorva - University of Oxford
Gosler
, Andrew - University of Oxford

In the Western Ghats of India, one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots in the world, inhabit the Habshis (Siddis), an ethnic African diaspora. The forest has been their home for 400 years and they are entirely dependent on it for their livelihoods. In recent times, the landscapes are being modified with developmental activities leading not only to the loss of biodiversity and livelihoods, but also traditional ecological knowledge of the community.

Indigenous knowledge can largely aid in informing biodiversity conservation. About 510 species of birds are documented from the Western Ghats, several being endemic and threatened due to habitat loss. This preliminary study documents the tribe’s ethno-ecological knowledge and relationship with endangered, large-bodied avian seed-dispersers, the hornbills, that play a crucial role in forest regeneration. It emphasises on the importance of ecological, cultural, linguistic and spiritual inter-relatedness of human-bird-plant interaction and its preservation, for sustaining healthy ecosystems and livelihoods.

15:00 to 16:15 (Thursday)
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Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK)

Organizer/Moderator: 
Alex McAlvay

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
15:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Deshwal
, Anant - University of Tennessee
Kulkarni
, Apoorva Kulkarni - University of Oxford
Gosler
, Andrew - University of Oxford

Even though India has numerous indigenous communities, the published material on Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is minimal. We document the current state of TEK-related studies in India using Google Scholar and Web of Science. We categorized the results based on collection methods, the scale of TEK collection, and the perseverance of TEK. TEK was more often collected for medicinal or edible plants as compared to other taxa. Few studies recorded TEK holistically at an integrated landscape scale as opposed to the utilitarian taxonomic approach. The reported cultural and ecological significance of TEK for communities was biased by data collection methods. Lastly, we report the efficacy of keywords (e.g., Ethnobiology, Ethnoecology) and search engines in TEK literature search, e.g., Ethnobiology in Google Scholar yielded 70% studies on medicine, 23.3% on edible plants, 3.3% on snakebites, and 3.3% on taxonomy. However, significantly different proportions were obtained using different search terms such as Ethnoecology.

15:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Pardo
, Christine - University of Miami
Ruiz Morales
, Gustavo - Universidad Hispanoamericana
Shriver-Rice
, Meryl - University of Miami

Controlling the spread of invasive species requires understanding local perceptions. In 1969, the species Zingiber spectabile was introduced from Malaysia to the Wilson Botanical Garden in San Vito, Costa Rica. Growing concern over this species in recent years is due to its dominance in the region’s remaining tropical forests. However, this species is also left to thrive in forests to be harvested for floral arrangements used in churches and local celebrations. By combining interviews with florists, farmers, gardeners, naturalists, scientists, and private forest owners, I will present the current findings of my research that seeks to understand how the local community perceives this species and its invasion. My preliminary findings show how the perception of Z. spectabile as an invasive species is not shared. Interview responses indicate how perceptions depend on ecological knowledge, prior experiences, ideas of beauty, and a sense of what belongs in a tropical forest.

15:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Ermilova
, Mariia - Chiba University Graduate School of Horticulture
Terada
, Mitsunari - Chiba University Graduate School of Horticulture
Kinoshita
, Isami - Professor of Otsuma Women’s University, Professor Emeritus Chiba University

Japanese folk art Tsurushibina is a hanging decoration with lucky charms made from kimono silk by women to their daughters and granddaughters on Girls Day. Decoration from Izu-Inatori area (one from three origin places in Japan) include 14 plants and 18 animal species. Why were some particular plant and animal species were included in the amulet? We hypothesize, that the symbolism of the amulet is a result of interaction with biodiversity.

Analyzing interviews and literature in Japanese, we found that protective symbolism arises from sound (play of words), color, shape, and wish for the analogy with the quality of the natural object, and oftentimes contains TEK of this natural object. It is also related to the Shinto religion.

This study suggests that protective symbolism of plant components in ornament is associated with the TEK, use of these plant components for food and medicine. We call it the "biocultural code".

15:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Mendoza
, Jimlea Nadezhda - Tagalog Fisher Community of Mabato Asufre; Ca 'Foscari University of Venice
Mattalia
, Giulia - Ca 'Foscari University of Venice
Prūse
, Baiba - Ca 'Foscari University of Venice
Kochalski
, Sophia - Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology, Inland Fisheries
Ciriaco
, Aimee - Kabulusan Integrated National High School
Sõukand
, Renata - Ca 'Foscari University of Venice

The study of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) held by fishers is crucial for better understanding the dynamics of the aquatic ecosystems in which they live. This is especially relevant for those contexts that experience major environmental changes, despite providing crucial ecosystem services. Thirty semi-structured interviews with experienced fishers were conducted. Fishers reported that less fish is captured now than in their earliest fishing activities. Likewise, the main drivers of this change are overfishing, aquaculture, fishkill, the introduction of invasive species, decrease of fish habitats, and increased water turbidity. This research builds on exploring the LEK held by freshwater fishers of the Laguna Lake, Philippines, regarding its environmental changes including fish species caught and changes in their food use.

15:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Williams
, Dai
Turner
, Nancy - University of Victoria

The Ainu were historically a hunting, fishing, and gathering society that, at various times, occupied territory in what are now known as Hokkaido, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Archipelago. With our mutual interest in ethnobotany, we compare some common features of traditional plant knowledge and use between Ainu and Northwestern North American First Peoples. While there is no evidence of direct communication or knowledge exchange in the histories of these peoples, there are some intriguing parallels and similarities across species and genera (e.g. Fritillaria camschatcensis as carbohydrate rich food; Taxus wood for bows; Urtica for cordage and nets and Typha for mats), likely due to the properties of the plants themselves, but possibly deriving from some ancient common ancestral knowledge.

16:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
McAlvay
, Alex - New York Botanical Garden
Feseha
, Tesfanesh - Addis Ababa University
Jordan Davalos
, Juan Pablo - Cornell University
DiPaola
, Anna - Cornell University
D'Andrea
, A. Catherine - Simon Fraser University
Dejen
, Asmare - Wollo University
Tewolde-Berhan
, Sarah - Mekelle University
Woldeyes Gamo
, Feleke - Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute
Asfaw
, Zemede - Addis Ababa University
Ruelle
, Morgan - Clark University
Power
, Alison - Cornell University

Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia rely on a diversity of crop species and varieties to maintain household food security and income in the context of climate change. In the northern highlands, many farmers sow mixtures of wheat and barley that are believed to enhance yield stability, however, farmers’ knowledge, use, and management of these mixtures have not been documented. We conducted 105 structured and 21 semi-structured interviews with farmers in as well as market surveys and semi-structured interviews with local agricultural administrators in Amhara and Tigray regions. Mixtures included up to four barley and two wheat varieties in a single field. Farmers reported that mixtures were more drought (14.6%) and disease (13.5%) tolerant, and of superior taste (25.6%) than sole-cropped varieties but were declining due to government-incentives to plant monocultures. We recommend participatory characterization of these mixtures before rushing to replace them with newly introduced varieties.

19:00 to 21:00 (Thursday)
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Guardians of the Forest

Organizer/Moderator: 
Michael Gilmore

Session Description

Guardians of the Forest is a documentary film that tells the inspiring story of the Maijuna Indigenous group of the Peruvian Amazon as they fight for their biologically rich ancestral lands and cultural survival. The Maijuna culture is sustained and nourished by their heavily forested ancestral territory, which is increasingly threatened by outsiders. After introducing and screening the film, this session will culminate in a question-and-answer session with the producer and director. This documentary film will be of broad interest to conference attendees as it touches on Indigenous rights and lifeways, community empowerment, biocultural conservation, and environmental justice, among other critical topics.

Guardians of the Forest Trailer: https://vimeo.com/481911459 

Friday, May 14, 2021

13:00 to 14:15 (Friday)
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Ethnobiology Ethics Lab: Open House

Organizer/Moderator: 
Sarah Walshaw

Session Description

The Ethnobiology Ethics Lab seeks input from members concerning issues of ethical theory and practice in the disciplines and in the Society. Operated in open house format, members of the Ethics and Advocacy committee will moderate discussion, record participants' contributions, and make a plan to move issues forward in committee work during the year. 

13:00 to 14:15 (Friday)
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Ethnobiology for Communities

Organizer/Moderator: 
Daniela Shebitz

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
13:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Herron
, Scott - Ferris State University; Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum
Michener
, David - University of Michigan Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum
Cornelius
, Dan - Intertribal Agriculture Council
Young
, Lisa - University of Michigan
Martin
, Shannon - Executive Director, Cultural Pathways Group LLC

This project convened over 4 years an interdisciplinary, problem-solving team of University of Michigan, Anishinaabe (Tribal), and plant specialists to identify issues and develop protocols for sharing of heritage seeds and associated archival information currently curated in University collections. Goals were to determine how collections can be innovatively used in partnership with the Anishinaabe, and how to assess the viability and vigor of archived seeds.  The group addressed questions of how universities and Anishinaabe can collaborate  on sustainable lifeway initiatives in indigenous communities. For three years project partners donated seeds of culturally critical maize varieties (yellow flour corn, Red Lake flint corn, and Fox blue corn) along with varieties of squash (Gete okosmin and  Potawatomi watermelon), and select bean and tobacco species. The successes of 3 years of growing at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens has strengthened tribal-university relationships to a historic level in Michigan.

13:12
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Stokes
, Samantha - University of Michigan, School for Environment & Sustainability
Labine
, Roger - Lac Vieux Desert, Native Wild Rice Coalition
Sprague
, Lee - Match e be nash she wish (Gun Lake) Mnomen Elder
Herron
, Scott - Ferris State University

The lands occupied by the University of Michigan are within the traditional homelands of the Anishinaabek. The cession 4,000 acres of those lands via the 1817 Fort Meigs Treaty provided for the creation of the U-M. Violent, coercive land cessions such as these were methods the settler government used to gain control of the land now called the United States. The trauma of this process and the disruption of lifeways is felt today by Native peoples living within a society that limits their interaction with ancestral lands and foodways. As academics within a colonial institution, we must find ways to address these atrocities within our work, repair relationships and further justice and equity for the Native people of this land. The Mnomen Project seeks to do this by fostering partnerships between Anishinaabek community members and the U-M that build respectful, reciprocal relationships around the goal of restoring “the good berry”.

13:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Ford
, Anabel - Exploring Solutions Past~The Maya Forest Alliance
Ellis Topsey
, Cynthia - Duke of Edinburgh Awards International Belize

It is no accident that the dominant Maya Forest plants are all useful. Generations over millennia crafted a landscape that to satisfy the necessities of life. We are reawakening inherent connections to the forest gardens based on the living museum at the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve for Maya Flora and Fauna of Belize and Guatemala. Understanding the value of the traditional farmer knowledge is a requisite for ensuring food sovereignty and conservation for the future of this tropical woodland. Heterogeneous and biodiverse, forest gardens constitute the strength of the community, relying on the local farming households as action to mitigate climate change. Today, Maya forest gardeners’ intimate knowledge of their landscape is a model of a sustainable co-creative process to reduce temperature, maintain biodiversity, conserve water, enhance soil fertility, reduce erosion, care for people and provide inspiration all over our planet.

13:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Shebitz
, Daniela - Kean University
Kerns
, Steven
Ha
, Juyoung - Kean University

Secondary forests comprise over half of existing tropical forests globally. They support a great diversity of species and sequester carbon at a higher rate than old-growth forests because the trees grow more rapidly. In the Northern Zone of Costa Rica, many tree, understory, and liana species in the secondary forests provide medicinal value to the rural communities where western medical care is difficult to access. Recent research, however, has shown that secondary forests are re-cleared before they have accumulated the previously lost biomass and biodiversity, many only given 20 years to recover. This paper highlights the importance of secondary forests to a community called Boca Tapada, in Costa Rica. Some species with medicinal attributes are highlighted (ie. Pentaclethra macrophylla, Vismia macroloba and Aechmea magdalenae) for their cultural and ecological roles in the forests, and economic aspects of conserving the forests instead of clearing them are evaluated.

13:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Fowler
, Cynthia - Wofford College

In this presentation, I employ biosocial theory to frame concerns about legitimacy in the governance, management, and use of freshwater on Sumba Island.  Of special concern is water grabbing, which has increased during the previous 21 years on Sumba.  Under what conditions of legitimacy is water grabbing occurring?  What are the everyday practices and multiscale processes through which freshwater, and legitimate or illegitimate authority over freshwater, are made and remade in Sumba’s semi-arid landscape?  To answer these questions, I combine basic spatial, ecological, and cultural descriptions of freshwater with information drawn from remotely sensed spatial data and data collected from documents published by academics, government agencies, corporations, and the news media. My explorations are directed towards understanding the impacts of multiscale processes on the changing management of freshwater their links to the wellbeing of Sumbanese people because the availability of freshwater--while variable--limits the wellbeing of Sumba Islanders.

14:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Antoniou
, Anna - American Philosophical Society

How can we, as scholars, advocate for those who have lost crucial parts of their cultural heritage? How do we serve as allies in their cultural sustainability efforts? Indigenous archaeology provides the materials by which descendant communities can imagine how past practices may inspire a healthy, culturally rich, and self-determined future. In this paper, I present a case study of research conducted with, for, and by the Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe and Chinook Indian Nation. This research integrates a zooarchaeological understanding of past subsistence practices into their efforts to revitalize traditional foodways, reclaim legal rights to marine resources, and improve dietary health. I explore the potentials and pitfalls of integrating archaeology into Indigenous communities’ food sovereignty initiatives. I share our success in using archaeology as a physical link to the communities’ ancestors and our ongoing struggles to use archaeological data to advocate for Indigenous rights within a state-centered system.

13:00 to 14:15 (Friday)
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Plants and Landscapes Across Time

Organizer/Moderator: 
Torben Rick

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
13:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Williams
, Charles - Columbia Southern University

The Venango Path was a Native American pathway in western Pennsylvania that ran from the Forks of the Ohio north to the village of Venango at the mouth of French Creek, thence through the French Creek Valley to Presque Isle near Lake Erie. The Venango Path was an important north-south “landscape of movement” for Native Americans and Europeans alike, facilitating trade, migration and settlement, and military activities.  Using journals and maps of surveyors and military expeditions from the 18th century, I examined evidence for cultural landscapes along the Venango Path, influenced by Native American land use. Oak barrens, largely produced by burning, were frequently noted by travelers along the southern Venango Path. In the glaciated valley of French Creek along the northern Venango Path, the landscapes were rich and varied, including savannas, prairies and diverse forests, suggesting a range of Native American land use practices - burning and perhaps agroforestry.

13:24
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Wade
, Kali - Atlatl Archaeology Ltd.
Dunseth
, Zachary C. - Brown University, Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World
Plekhov
, Daniel - Brown University, Joukowsky institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World

Phytolith analysis is increasingly used to address a range of archaeological research questions. While greater transparency and standardized identifications have been developed, a lack of standardized processing protocols persists due to the varied nature of the sediments and soils from which phytoliths are sampled. In well preserved contexts, phytoliths might be easily extracted with minimal alterations to the sediments and soils in question. In silty clay-rich sediments or soils, the increased use of dangerous chemicals, deflocculation agents, sonication, etc., may be necessary to separate phytoliths from the matrix. Here, we present additional details and suggestions for the sonication method(s) outlined by Lombardo and colleagues and urge phytolith researchers to consider, justify, and clearly report their processing protocols. We argue that clarifying processing protocols will lead to greater transparency in laboratory methods, more reliable production of clearer microscopy slides and, in turn, more confident morphological identifications and phytolith densities

13:36
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Rick
, Torben - Smithsonian Institution
Braje
, Todd - San Diego State University
Easterday
, Kelly - The Nature Conservancy
Graham
, Lain - ESRI
Hofman
, Courtney - University of Oklahoma
Holguin
, Brian - University of California, Santa Barbara
Reeder-Myers
, Leslie - Temple University
Reynolds
, Mark - The Nature Conservancy

The places people live and spend time are steeped in history and have direct connections to cultural practices, ritual, daily life, and environmental interactions. Cultural Keystone Places (CKP) are important landscapes that are imbued with people’s identity, history, and ecology. We identify Humqaq or Point Conception, California as a Chumash CKP. Ethnohistoric accounts and contemporary Chumash community members have long demonstrated the importance of Point Conception in Chumash worldview and identity. Recent archaeological survey of the coastline surrounding Humqaq highlights these connections, identifying over 50 archaeological sites and at least 9000 years of occupation. Point Conception is also an area of high biological diversity, an important marine and terrestrial biogeographical boundary, and an area of conservation priority. We discuss the results of our archaeological research and ongoing collaborations between archaeologists, The Nature Conservancy, and Chumash community members for understanding the past, present, and future of Humqaq.

13:48
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Ward
, Grace - Washington University in St. Louis

We now recognize that the ecology of many of the world’s forests reflects millennia of indigenous hunting, gathering and agriculture. Much of the research supporting this assertion has been conducted under the frameworks of historical and political ecology in regions like the Amazon basin, where legacy forests survive as socio-ecological palimpsests. Drawing from research on Archaic hunter-gatherers in the Lower Mississippi Valley of the United States, I argue that these frameworks fall short when applied to the longue durée of ecological systems erased by European colonialism and modern development. To compensate for the loss of cultural information encoded in legacy ecologies, I advocate greater articulation with research on hunter-gatherer societies and their variable social relations of production. In the archaeological record of the Lower Mississippi Valley Archaic, earthworks and paleoethnobotanical remains provide proxies for these relationships, permitting a study of regional historical ecology focused on social organization.

14:00
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Gordon
, A. Ross - St. Stephen's College

We redefine the concept of folk ecotopes as basic units or patches of landscape/seascape differentiated by discontinuities salient through human experiences. Distinct from the biota-defined biotope in ecology, our folk ecotope definition intersects biotic and physiographic features with situated human activity to mark centers of patches with porous boundaries contiguous with other folk ecotopes in continuum. We analyze a rich lexicon of littoral seascape feature identifications recorded in seven Gwatle fishing villages in the Aru Islands, Indonesia to evaluate this definition. Gwatle pearl divers’ experiences of seascape features provide novel insights into the folk ecotope concept. We suggest seascape feature knowledge gathered indirectly by focusing on situated human activity is less prescriptive to discern cross-culturally relevant ethnoecological units.   

14:45 to 16:00 (Friday)
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Ethnobiology & Health

Organizer/Moderator: 
Andrew Flachs

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
14:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Sharaibi
, Olubunmi - Lagos State University.

This study was conducted at Apa town, a suburban area in Badagry Local Government area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The aim was to identify plants used for medicinal purposes in the study area and recommend strategies for their conservation. Six plots were randomly selected in the study area and transect method was used. A total of 103 plant species belonging to 52 families were identified. They include trees, shrubs, climbers and herbs and are used for treatment of different diseases and ailments. Some are also used as insectides, pesticides and as anti-inflammatory agent. Effective conservation strategies include proper training of locals on collection techniques, allocation of communal lands for medicinal plants farms and creating awareness by Government and relevant agencies on the need to conserve these medicinal plants.

 

 

 

 

14:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Mattalia
, Giulia - Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Belichenko
, Olga - Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Kalle
, Raivo - University of Gastronomic Sciences
Kolosova
, Valeria - Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Kuznetsova
, Natalia - Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Prakofjewa
, Julia - Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Stryamets
, Nataliya - Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Pieroni
, Andrea - University of Gastronomic Sciences
Volpato
, Gabriele - University of Gastronomic Sciences
Sõukand
, Renata - Ca' Foscari University of Venice

In many societies, livestock significantly contributes to people’s food security. In the rural contexts of Eastern Europe, the health care of a family used to extend until recently also to that of their livestock. We investigated current and past ethnoveterinary practices in nine rural borderland areas of Eastern Europe and discussed what factors may have contributed to the persistence/erosion of ethnoveterinary knowledge in those contexts. Over 500 interviews conducted in eight countries revealed the use of over 90 plants for ethnoveterinary purposes, although, in most contexts, ethnoveterinary knowledge is quickly eroding mainly due to the decline in family farming following major socio-political changes and centralization/intensification of livestock husbandry. In contrast, in the Carpathian region, ethnoveterinary practices persist likely due to its geographical isolation. We conclude that such vanishing knowledge and practices can serve as a key as they have the potential to improve animal welfare while providing healthier animal products.

15:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Flachs
, Andrew - Purdue University
Orkin
, Joseph - Universitat Pompeu Fabra-CSIC

Fermented foods are produced from microbial reactions that depend on local environmental conditions, fermentation practices, and the manner in which foods are prepared and consumed. These interactions are of special interest to ethnobiologists because they link investigations of how people shape and know the world around them. In this presentation, we report on data collected at a fermentation revivalist workshop in Tennessee. To ask how fermentation traditions are learned and influence macro and micro ecologies, we conducted interviews and participated in a four-day craft fermentation workshop, and then collected both fermented food products and stool samples from workshop participants eating those fermented foods. We identify 25 genera as having likely crossed between foods and guts, report that broad categories of foods have similar microbiological ecologies with variation within them, and connect these genetic results to subtle variations in preparation, flavor, and culturally defined taste.

15:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Snively-Martinez
, Amy - Wenatchee Valley College

Research was conducted to understand ethnoveterinary medicine used for poultry in a protected mangrove ecosystem located on the Southern Pacific coast of Guatemala. Here, poultry rearing is an important livelihood for women, but access to veterinary services is limited. There is a need to understand local animal healthcare beliefs and practices to improve poultry health. A combination of ethnographic interviews (n=35) and freelist interviews (n=24) were conducted in two communities. Ethnographic research indicated that 40% of households use home remedies for poultry treatment, 57% exclusively use human pharmaceuticals or veterinary medicines, and 3% rely on other methods. Interviews indicate that people are incorporating human antibiotics into their ethnoveterinary practices, which may be replacing knowledge of plant remedies. The antibiotics are readily available locally even though they remain unsuccessful to treat common illnesses for poultry. Human antibiotic use for animals is of concern due to the potential for antimicrobial resistance.

15:34
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Awasthi
, Balram - Tribhuvan University, Siddhanath Science Campus

The present study focuses on traditional usage of animals and plants species for medicinal purpose and indigenous knowledge system existing of Rana Tharu a sub-group of Tharu in Nepal. A total of 24 animal species and 73 plant species are used by Rana Tharu people to treat 26 and 45 different ailments, respectively.The elder people also believe and tended to have a positive view toward the conservation of traditional medicine. However, knowledge is transferred orally from one generation to the next by traditional healers. Lack of interest among younger generations and no written records has led to the loss of vital information. Similarly, existence of knowledge is being threatened due to change in life style, easy access to health services, and few local healers left of the Rana Tharu. Thus, in order to protect their knowledge, this study suggests additional awareness dissemination, further documentation, perseveration and promotion of these teachings.

15:46
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Glover
, Denise M. - University of Puget Sound

Increasing production of traditional medicines worldwide has created increasing pressure on resources, since ingredients used in traditional medicines are generally wild-harvested. In addition to harvesting pressures, conversion of harvesting lands into agricultural lands, overgrazing in harvesting areas, and climate change are also adding pressure to medicinal resources. In this presentation I explore the practice of substitution (tshab) in Tibetan medicine formulation as a resilient, adaptive strategy utilized historically and currently in times of resource scarcity and pressure. This effective resource management strategy is under threat from medical standardization, where flexible use of resources in medicine formulas is not allowed. I argue that to avoid the rigidity trap of standardization, medicine production regulations in China should allow for substitutions in order to help avoid resource collapse.

14:45 to 16:00 (Friday)
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Ethnobiology in Mexico / Etnobiología de México (Part II)

Organizer/Moderator: 
Ramon Cuevas

Session Description

This two-part session highlights a range of contemporary ethnobiological research in Mexico. The studies presented include: descriptions of plant and landscape usage, the significance of cultural knowledge for conservation, and the economic dimensions of natural resource exploitation. The session will feature some papers in Spanish and some in English. 

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
14:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Flores-Silva
, Alondra - University of Guadalajara
Cuevas-Guzmán
, Ramón - University of Guadalajara
Baptista
, Geilsa - State University of Feira de Santana
Olvera-Vargas
, Miguel - University of Guadalajara

The ability to name plants is part of one´s theoretical botanical knowledge. We analyze the intracultural variation of knowledge regarding the cultural domain of edible plants in a rural population of western Mexico. It evaluates an individual’s capacity to name plants, the plant´s salience, children´s sources of this knowledge, and the socioeconomic factors that influence their degree of knowledge in a context of socio-environmental changes. Freelists on local edible plant species were generated with 107 participants, including, children of middle childhood, preteens, and adults. A total of 102 species were obtained among the lists for all three age groups. While each age and gender group presented particularities in terms of the species mentioned, a high level of overlap was found among the salient species. Vertical knowledge transmission was more important for the children, and their ability to name the species differed significantly according to age, gender, and mother´s occupation.

14:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Ramírez
, Rosa Elena

Grupo “Color de la Tierra” surgió en 2001 atendiendo a una problemática de cambio de uso de suelo y disminución de cafetales bajo sombra de más de 200 años de antigüedad. La situación de ese tiempo se reflejo en la pérdida de recursos locales y conocimientos. Por lo que se ha venido trabajando para mantener el sistema café bajo sombra, dándole un valor agregado, fortaleciendo la situación socioeconómica con autoempleo dentro de nuestra comunidad, haciendo un mejor uso de nuestros recursos, preservando conocimientos tradicionales, aprendiendo por medio del intercambio y aprovechando los recursos de manera sustentable.

Nuestros planes para el futuro incluyen: innovar, diversificar y aumentar la producción, mantener clientela, fortalecer cadenas productivas, mantener seguridad alimentaria y económica para nuestras familias y seguir generando procesos de intercambio de experiencias que favorezcan el desarrollo sustentable.

15:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Cuevas-Guzmán
, Ramón - University of Guadalajara
Núñez-López
, Nora M. - University of Guadalajara
Topete-Corona
, Citlally - University of Guadalajara
Morales-Arias
, José Guadalupe - University of Guadalajara

Camote del cerro includes at least two species of Dioscorea on the South Coast of Jalisco. The tuberous root has been used as food for decades by man. These are volubles perennial herbs, the aerial part of which dies year after year. Interviews were conducted with 47 collectors in the region who indicate that they collect the roots from August to February of the following year. Dioscorea remotiflora is found in the tropics zones, usually below 1200 m elevation, and is harvested from August to November. Dioscorea sparciflora is rather from subtropical to temperate areas, usually above 1200 and up to 1800 m and is harvested from December to March. Both species are used for self-consumption and sale, representing a source of food and income for families in the region.

15:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Olson
, Liz - SUU

In Mexico, there are laws that prohibit the use of more than seventy medicinal plants and herbs, citing that they have potentially harmful or unknown affects. Medicinal plants are used widely and the knowledge of plant usage is highly valued. Those who hold this cultural capital (i.e., the theoretical and practical knowledge of medicinal plants). An increasingly visible movement for food and health sovereignty provides the ethnographic context for the central argument in this paper: The utility of plants which are readily accessible in Autlán is secondary to the social capital gained through usage and participation in grassroots movements to minimize local impacts of global markets. The grassroot movement embodies a traditional authority that runs counter to the dominant biomedical health sector in Mexico.

 

14:45 to 16:00 (Friday)
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Water as Life, as Being, and as Person

Organizer/Moderator: 
Nicole Sault

Session Description

Struggles over water are increasing as water becomes more scarce or floods, is more contaminated and commodified. Water defenders and water protectors speak of water as vital for survival, and in many cultures water is understood as a living being and/or spirit. Recently legal scholars have been called upon to join in defending water by defining bodies of water like lakes in terms of “personhood,” arguing that if corporations can be defined as legal persons, then a river or a spring can be also. These presentations describe the meaning and status of water in relation to cultural perspectives that call upon the reclamation of liquid traditions in safeguarding water, the land, and communities in relation to colonization, sovereignty, treaty rights, and mapping of bodies of water on the land and also along coastlines, out at sea, and under or in the sky. 

Presentations

Time
(MST)
Abstract
14:45
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Sault
, Nicole - Sally Glean Center

Water is the focus of ceremonial life in the Andes, in a cycle that connects land and sea with the sky and beyond to the stars. The watery cycle reaches up through clouds into the star-filled celestial river and returns through rain, snow, hail, and fog, flowing to mountains, lakes, and rivers, and then passing down to the sea. This watery cycle also connects seaweed and seashells with highland camelids, potatoes, fish, and birds such as condors and flamingos. Their part in this cycle is called upon and honored through ceremonies to protect and encourage the continued flow of water and watery beings. Threats to any part of the cycle can disturb the whole, whether this be due to mining or the climate crisis. As Andean peoples say “water is life”— so any disruption in the flow is a threat to the survival of all.

 

14:57
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Katz
, Esther - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement
Lammel
, Annamária - Université Paris 8-Saint-Denis-Vincennes
Bonnet
, Marie-Paule - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement

Floodplains of the Amazon river provide abundant resources but are a vulnerable environment.  Seasonal floods fertilize the lands where short-cycle plants and fruit trees are cultivated. A profusion of fish can be captured, especially in dry season, when cattle is taken to graze on the uncovered lands. Nevertheless, occasional strong floods can destroy houses and plantations.  They used to occur about every 20 years, but now take place every two or three years, reaching water levels previously unrecorded. In recent years, dry seasons have also been drier, impacting local activities. With the example of the Great Lake of Curuaí, a floodplain located near the city of Santarem, we will describe how people perceive and adapt to the environmental changes and also analyze how these changes are intertwined with social, economic and political conditions.

15:10
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Henri
, Dominique A. - Environment and Climate Change Canada
Alexander
, Steven M. - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Provencher
, Jennifer F. - Environment and Climate Change Canada
Nanayakkara
, Lushani - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Taylor
, Jessica J. - Canadian Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, Carleton University
Berberi
, Alana - Canadian Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, Carleton University
Lloren
, Jed Immanuel - University of Lethbridge
Johnson
, Jay T. - University of Kansas
Ballard
, Myrle - University of Manitoba

While the benefits of incorporating multiple types of knowledge in environmental research and management are many, doing so has remained a challenge. This presentation discusses a systematic map which examines the extent, range, and nature of published case studies that seek to bridge Indigenous and Western sciences in ecological research, monitoring, or natural resource management across Canada’s freshwater aquatic ecosystems. A review of 74 case studies included in this systematic map highlights the diversity of ways knowledge systems can be woven, but that the application of these approaches are limited to some key regions and species. The presence and diversity of Indigenous methodologies employed was notable and collectively our findings point to a potential emerging transformation in research focused on freshwater ecosystems, habitats, and species to a practice that elevates the role of Indigenous communities, centers Indigenous science and knowledge, and is informed by Indigenous ways of being and doing.

15:22
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Loodts
, Nicolas - UCLouvain/IACCHOS-LAAP-FNRS-FRESH

Heron cooperative, located in Belgium, is a small farm that grows vegetables according to the principles of agroecology. Water is central to the life of this farm for watering the different crops. Beyond the obvious, water can be seen as an interspecific sign between humans, plants, and even bacteria. When farmers bring to saturation the soil deeply with water before transplanting tomatoes, they do it to encourage the roots to go deeper. When manure is sprinkled with water in spring in the greenhouses, it starts a considerable fermentation that will warm the greenhouses and allow the sowing. Agroecology is based on an in-depth knowledge of the agroecosystem to guide it by actions seen as signs for the nonhumans. But water is also a sign of changing times. When the drought strikes, farmers have to deal with quasi-constant irrigation, and the lack of water reveals the fragility of the plants as a metaphor for our own fragility.

15:34
Presentation format: 
Oral (live)
Author(s):
Carrasco
, Anita - Luther College

Likan Tatay is an indigenous community in northern Chile that has a long trajectory of resistance through their fight to reconstruct a traditional village, but in an urban space. In rural villages, community members had once practiced a livelihood involving herding animals and small-scale agriculture for which water and land was fundamental. The encroachment of mining and its water theft, led many rural indigenous peoples to migrate to the city in one of the driest deserts in the world. Not wanting to abandon their connection with water and land, Likan Tatay began as a squatter settlement in the poverty belt of Calama mining town. Initially, community members had little choice but to steal sewage water from the public pipeline to irrigate their crops. Their faith in the powers of the Pachamama played a central role in their successful fight to make a living and practice their culture in the city.

15:46
Presentation format: 
Oral (pre-recorded)
Author(s):
Castro
, Victoria - Universidad de Chile
Valenzuela
, Daniela - Universidad de Tarapacá-FONDECYT

For the Indigenous peoples of the southern Andes, both human and non-human inhabitants of the universe originated from springs. Water has been essential not only for their livelihoods, but also for their social life in general. In many Andean agro-pastoral communities, water shortages can be traced to indiscriminate and abusive extraction for urban and industrial purposes, without consideration for integrated and sustainable solutions. Relentless water extraction has turned wetlands into salt marshes and destroyed a way of life that is inextricably tied to land and water. While many people have been compelled to migrate to urban suburbs, those who remain have been forced to confront punishing changes in water management in order to be able to irrigate their crops. We address water use in the Atacama desert and its central importance as embodied in cultural expressions of both the past and the present.