2017 Conference Schedule

(Presentations marked with an asterisk are being considered for the Barbara Lawrence Award.)

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

6:00pm (Wednesday)
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Main Entry of Botanical Garden & Atrium
8:30am to 10:00am
(Thursday)
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Plenary Session: Elder Talks & Welcome

Amphithéâter Henry-Teuscher

Presentations

Time Abstract
8:30am
Author(s):
Deer
, Kanahsohon Kevin
8:50am
Author(s):
Simon
, Serge
9:10am
Author(s):
Winters
, Nellie

Nellie Winters is an Elder from Okak Bay living in Makkovik, Nunatsiavut (Labrador). She was raised in Okak Bay, on the north coast of Labrador. Her family was relocated to Makkovik in 1956 when services to the area were cut off by the provincial government.  Nellie Winters is a respected artist whose work is commissioned and exhibited by galleries, museums and private collections both in Canada and internationally. Her Inukuluk drawings are featured in a recently submitted co-authored paper to the Journal of Ethnobiology special issue on fishing. Mrs. Winters’ other work includes sealskin boots, grasswork, embroidery, coats, caps, dresses, beading, jewellery, carvings, wall hangings, purses, paintings, and a lamp. In 1976, she was personally invited to demonstrate her artistic work at the Montreal Olympics. Forty years later, Mrs. Winters returns to Montreal to speak from her experiences on the importance of her home.

9:30am
Author(s):
Evans
, Annie

Annie Evans is an Elder from Adlavik Bay living in Makkovik, Nunatsiavut (Labrador). She was raised at her winter home in Adlavik Bay, and spent summers at family fishing places in October Harbour and Strawberry Harbour. At seven years old, Annie Evans went to mandatory boarding school in Makkovik. Her family moved permanently to Makkovik when she was ten. In Makkovik, Annie Evans has raised a family, worked at the fish plant and Air Labrador, served six years on the Board of the Labrador Inuit Association (now Nunatsiavut Government), served as a chapel servant and lay minister, and furthered her education as a community health worker. In her Elder counsellor role, she now supports Nunatsiavummuit at Elders gatherings, at the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, and supports residential school survivors. Annie Evans would like to share her perspective on connections to family places and plants. 

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Thursday)
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Roundtable: Haudenosaunee Perspectives on Environmental Responsibility

Amphithéâter Henry-Teuscher

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Jessica Dolan - McGill University
Peggy Pyke-Thompson - Mohawk Council of Akwesasne Department of the Environment

On this panel, environmental caretakers from Akwesasne, Kahnawa:ke, and Kanesatake will speak about environmental responsibility. [Each person will speak for 15 minutes, and then we will allow 1/2 hour for questions or discussion.]

  • Peggy Pyke-Thompson, Director, Mohawk Council of Akwesasne Department of the Environment
  • Lynn Jacobs, Environmental Advisor/Project Coordinator, Kahnawà:ke Environmental Protection Office
  • Alicia Cook, Ase Tsi Tewaton aka Akwesasne Cultural Restoration Program, Master in Medicine
  • Iekennorehstha: Amberdawn LaFrance – Ase Tsi Tewaton aka Akwesasne Cultural Restoration Program, Database Administrator
  • Eugene Nicholas, Director, Mohawk Council of Kanesatake Department of the Environment
  • Jessica Dolan, McGill University (Moderator)

Apprentices from the Ase Tsi Tewaton aka Akwesasne Cultural Restoration Program will serve teas that participants can try.

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Thursday)
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Birds, Plants and Other People: Ecological and Cultural Relationships Across Species Boundaries, Part I

Biodiversity Center Rm A

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Nicole Sault, Sally Glean Center, California
Marco Antonio Vásquez-Dávila, Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca, México

Ecological research demonstrates the complex interconnections between different species and the environment. This knowledge is also encoded in various cultural traditions through myths, rituals, and rules of etiquette. While Western science divides living things into taxonomic categories based on genetics and anatomical characteristics, cultures around the world have created categories that cross the boundaries of animal, plant, human, and the environment. These categories reflect relationships between beings that appear in different forms but are connected through kinship, ties to the land, spirit essence and mythological origins. This session addresses both biological and culturally defined interrelationships between birds and other beings, whether these are plants, animals, mushrooms or landscapes. To better understand avian relationships with others, special attention is given to the traditional environmental knowledge of indigenous or First Nations peoples. This knowledge can aid in better understanding the impact of global climate change and the role of humans as custodians and caretakers of the environment.

Presentations

Time Abstract
10:30am
Author(s):
Hecht
, David - University of Georgia (UGA), International Society of Ethnobiology (ISE)

As conservation scientists increasingly address human beliefs and values, greater attention is being given to spiritual landscapes and sacred sites.  In the Himalayan Buddhist kingdom of Bhutan, the omnipresence of sacred sites and beliefs in local deity realms have led select conservation organizations to create programs that consider ways to align beliefs in sacred sites with goals of environmental conservation.  Many prominent conservation projects in Bhutan include avian conservation priorities, particularly for species like the Black-necked crane and White-bellied Heron, at a time when institutional interest in spatial mapping tools (GIS) for monitoring species movement and home range are rapidly growing.  In my research, I will explore how local conceptualizations of sacred/deity space relate to and interact with institutionally prioritized avian conservation space through the proxy of emerging spatial technologies and collaborative mapping techniques. 

10:45am
Author(s):
Vásquez-Dávila
, Marco Antonio - Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca
Jiménez-Díaz
, Juan Elmar
Allende-Nazario
, Reyna

This work is based on oral material gathered during fieldwork in Oaxaca and Chiapas in southern Mexico and compares this with the ethnographic literature on Mesoamerica, in which diverse groups share sacred stories about the metamorphosis of birds. We found there are at least three types of transmutations: 1) the Tzeltal believe that vultures can transform into humans and vice versa; 2) the Nahua of the 16th Century thought that warriors who died in combat were transformed into hummingbirds and the behavior of the war god, Huitzilopochtli, was based on the ethology of these small birds; 3) another group of stories (Zapotec, Mixes and Huave) shows how one species can transform into another and thus explains the appearance or conduct of animals. The mythic transformation, like the biological, affects the form, function and way of life of birds, humans and gods.

11:00am
Author(s):
Herron
, Scott - Ferris State University

In the Great Lakes Anishinaabek culture, the species boundaries between human beings, known as Anishinaabek (the man that was hence lowered down to earth from the skyworld), and Bineseewug (Ojibwe word for thunderbeings) are intertwined and culturally interrelated. This presentation will explore who the thunderbeings are, how they gave cultural fertilization to the humans that identify today as Anishinaabek, and what relationships exist and how they are maintained in today’s multicultural, multi-religious North American ecosystem.  Both field research and personal cultural experiential knowledge will inform this discussion. The gifts, medicines, and songs of the thunderbeings will be explored in an effort to help us understand these complex relationships across these species boundaries.

11:15am
Author(s):
Whaanga
, Hemi - Faculty of Māori and Indigenous Studies, University of Waikato
Scofield
, Paul - Canterbury Museum, New Zealand
Wehi
, Priscilla - Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua
Roa
, Tom - Faculty of Māori and Indigenous Studies, University of Waikato

Our names narrate our lives both lived and living and naming is a strong, entrenched branch of Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge). Naming in Māori society is a relationship formulated on establishing and reinforcing connections, identity, and place through genealogy, between the person or group doing the naming and the thing being named.  Over the past 8 years we have been investigating naming protocols and Māori classificatory systems for flora and fauna. In this paper, we discuss processes associated with Māori naming systems, the relationship between indigenous based systems and the naming of avifauna in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the development of a protocol for the naming of birds in Aotearoa/New Zealand. We highlight the importance of increasing awareness of the cultural values behind species’ names, and its value, relevance and significance in biodiversity reporting, monitoring and mapping.

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Thursday)
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Engaging Communities & Ethics in Context: The Process of Initiating Ethnobiological Fieldwork, Part I

Biodiversity Center Rm B

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Armando Medinaceli - Ethics Committee, Latin American Society of Ethnobiology - manduche@gmail.com
Erendira Cano - Ethics Committee, Latin American Society of Ethnobiology

The intention of this session is to discuss and reflect on the ways researchers are engaging with communities before, during and after data collection. Ethnobiology and anthropology, among other disciplines, deal directly with communities. But fieldwork does not start, or should not start, with the arrival at field sites for data collection. It is imperative that we take a first step before the “first step” of data collection to obtain permission/consent. 

Drawn from current discussions about ethics in ethnobiological research and our direct experience in collaboration with communities, this session will discuss how researchers are currently obtaining permission and consent to work with communities. We will aim to answer questions such as: 

  • Are we following the local customs and traditions of the communities in which we are working?
  • Are we following regulations imposed by our institutions (i.e., IRB)? Are those enough?
  • What other types of regulations do we follow, if any (national/international laws and regulations, codes of ethics, etc.)?
  • How are we portraying our ethics in our research, presentations and publications?
  • Should we do more?

This session will present several examples from around the world of how to “start” field work with communities. We invite discussion and reflection on the different ways of interacting with collaborators/informants, and how to portray this process in the final products of research.

Within the Latin American Society of Ethnobiology’s Ethics committee (SOLAE-EC), we are encouraging members of SOLAE and other ethnobiology researchers to make a reference within their work (i.e., methods section in a publication) of what ethical, legal or consuetudinary regulations the researchers are following. Making this explicit respects the people we collaborate with, adds value to the research, and also encourages good and ethical research practices.

Presentations

Time Abstract
10:30am
Author(s):
Flores
, Fabio - Centro Peninsular en Humanidades y en Ciencias Sociales, UNAM

In quite a few ethnobiological works, zooarchaeological data is needed to explain long lasting cultural processes. Even though such information is used for the configuration of the registry related to the techno-economic issues of old societies, the ethnoarchaeological point of view is patriculary much more useful in countries where there is a great variety of indigenous societies wich, along with the profuse historical data, becomes quite useful in ethnobiological research. It is normally thought that the validity of the analogies established by the ethnoachaeological point of view does not come from the similarity between the source (present society) and the subject (old society), but rather from the logical structure of the arguments and similarity of the terms of the relationship. However. when dealing with alive societies, this must be subject to ethical rules and must not develop any kind of study without the consent of the social beings involved.

10:45am
Author(s):
Desrosiers
, Sarah - University of British Columbia
Henry
, Greg - Univeristy of British Columbia
Student
, Participants - Kugluktuk High School, Nunavut

Communities in the Canadian Arctic are experiencing the effects of a changing environment and the development of appropriate policies may only be gained with the inclusion of communities in research. It is under that scope that we developed a community partnership to engage youth in Kugluktuk, Nunavut in the monitoring of annual berry productivity. The program aimed to integrate science and Inuit Qaijimajatuqangit through the interaction with Elders, land users and researchers. Using listening as methodology, the activities were developed holistically and evolved throughout the years. Through consultation and relationship building, this project used the study of the environment as a framework to foster Inuit youth's connection to the land, healing and wellbeing. Best practices for participatory research are few and poorly documented although central to the conduct of ethical and successful projects. This presentation will showcase a critical evaluation of the Berry Project in the Canadian Arctic.

11:00am
Author(s):
Medinaceli
, Armando - Latin American Society of Ethnobiology

Through my own research experience in Bolivia, Mexico and Guatemala I became convinced of the importance of engaging communities and obtaining their consent before I start any “proper” fieldwork, and I decided to incorporate a component of “engaging communities” in my own research proposals. Highlighting the collaborative nature of ethnobiological research, to obtain free, prior and informed consent from the communities is a vital component of any study, understanding that the consent agreements should be alive and follow the research in all its phases, from data collecting until the presentation of results. Codes of ethics in ethnobiology mark the importance of this step; also national (in some cases) and international treaties legally regulate this component of research. I use my own experiences of creating these agreements to invite ethnobiologists to a wide discussion regarding our ethics on approaching the communities we work with.

11:15am
Author(s):
Shebitz
, Daniela - Kean University
Oviedo
, Angela - Kean University

In the 1990s, the Maya ICBG (International Cooperative Biodiversity Group) was one of the major bioprospecting projects in Chiapas, Mexico and was designed to incorporate traditional knowledge into pharmaceutical research. The researchers had hopes of benefiting indigenous communities economically and technologically while conserving plants and traditional knowledge. Unfortunately, the project experienced local and international opposition who accused the project of exploiting indigenous people and privatizing their knowledge. The opposition claimed that commercially using medicinal plants conflicts with collective traditions and religions of the Maya. We present a teaching module in the form of an interrupted case study in which participants learn about the ethnobotanical study that shifted from one of promise to one of controversy. This case study is appropriate for undergraduates in various majors pertaining to ethnobiology and aims to teach about the complexities associated with bioprospecting and the reasons for an ethnobotanical project’s success or failure.  

11:30am
Author(s):
Fowler
, Cynthia - Wofford

An unprecedented moment in the fire ecology of the Blue Ridge Mountains occurred in Autumn 2016 when severe drought, frequent anthropogenic ignitions, and seasonality in disturbed deciduous forests fueled widespread burning.  As the wildfires burned, wildland firefighters from around the U.S. temporarily moved into the region to assist local land managers.  As wildfire risks increased and air quality decreased, local residents became increasingly interested in fire ecology. The community shifted continuously as wildfires were extinguished, wildland firefighters returned home, and local residents disengaged. In conducting research during the conflagration, obtaining consent from community members varied depending on whether or not I had previously worked with and taken the “first steps” towards establishing ethical relationships with individual community members.  In this presentation I discuss how best ethics practices fluctuate relative to shifts in the composition of human communities and the character of human-forest interactions.

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Thursday)
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Historical Ecology & Ethnoecology, Part I

IRBV Classroom (3rd Floor Main Bldg)

Presentations

Time Abstract
10:30am
Author(s):
Smith
, Nicole - Hakai Institute
Augustine
, Skye - Parks Canada
Holmes
, Keith - Hakai Institute
Lepofsky
, Dana - Simon Fraser University
Neudorf
, Chrissy - University of the Fraser Valley
Puckett
, Misha - Simon Fraser University
Roberts
, Christine - Wei Wai Kum First Nation, Hakai Institute
Rowell
, Kirsten - University of Colorado
Salomon
, Anne - Simon Fraser University
Salter
, Natasha - Simon Fraser University
Toniello
, Ginevra - Simon Fraser University
Wilson
, Louie - We Wai Kum First Nation, Hakai Institute

At the 2013 SoE Conference, Dana Lepofsky discussed how traditional mariculture practices in British Columbia are linked to issues of food security, health, economic development, governance, and community engagement in heritage. She presented emerging results on behalf of researchers in the Clam Garden Network, a collaborative team of First Nations knowledge holders, archaeologists, ecologists, geologists, and resource managers focused on clam gardens, one form of traditional marine resource management on North America’s Northwest Coast. Four years later, this expanding group of researchers has learned 1) how to age this ancient form of mariculture; 2) that clam gardening is a future-focused management technique; 3) the role of substrate in clam productivity; 4) that clam gardens can be more productive than non-walled beaches; and 5) that diverse communities are deeply interested in the learning, collaborative opportunities, and moves towards reconciliation that emerge from restoring and celebrating this example of indigenous ingenuity.

10:45am
Author(s):
Armstrong
, Chelsey Geralda - Simon Fraser University
McAlvay
, Alex - University Wisconsin, Madison
Miller
, Jesse - University of California-Davis
Lepofsky
, Dana - Simon Fraser University
Turner
, Nancy J. - University of Victoria

Globally, archaeological sites are often associated with distinct vegetation patterns.  Modern plant species composition was surveyed at four archaeological villages in British Columbia (cal. 5000 BP- 1870 AD) and inventories were used to test the influence of site history on species abundance and functional trait composition. Results indicate increased species richness and functional diversity at village sites (versus surrounding forests), as well as plants with larger seeds, and animal-mediated dispersal mechanisms. Abundant large, fruit-bearing shrubs were a distinctive part of the community at village sites (indicator species) but were rare in surrounding forests. This work builds on an increasing awareness that Indigenous people in the Pacific Northwest actively managed their lived landscapes to increase the productivity and proclivity of desired plants, in this case, by tending forest gardens near their ancestral homes.

11:00am
Author(s):
Oberndorfer
, Erica - Labrador Institute

Forestry literature describes past and present fires in Labrador forests as part of a natural and cyclical disturbance regime, with lighting the primary ignition source.  However, historical writings show that earlier observers attributed a much larger role to humans in the fire history of the region. According to historical accounts, Indigenous peoples and visitors deliberately used fire to (variously) create berry habitat, alter caribou routes, create dry firewood, clear land, improve soil fertility, and signal one another. Labradorians today use localised fires in springtime to encourage new grass growth, and build small fires throughout the year at “boil-ups” on the land. Wood stoves are a primary heat source for many residents, and smoke from burning sod preserves fish. It is important to consider these many relationships with fire—historical and contemporary, direct and indirect, widespread and localised—and their cumulative effects to better understand how cultural practices shape northern landscapes.

11:15am
Author(s):
Savo
, Valentina - Simon Fraser University
Lepofsky
, Dana - Simon Fraser University
Waterfall
, Pauline - Community of Bella Bella
Community of Bella Bella
, Heiltsuk - Community of Bella Bella

Heiltsuk First Nation have relied on and sustainably managed the marine and coastal ecosystems in their territories for millennia. Today, many factors are threatening the social-ecological health of the Heiltsuk. We conducted semi-structured interviews (~30) with traditional knowledge holders to assess potential impacts of climate change in the Heiltsuk territory. Heiltsuk people are observing several changes. The most common observation is increased temperature and the consequent reduction of snowfall over the winter. Moreover, warmer temperatures are affecting animals and their hibernating or migrating patterns (e.g., bears, humpback whales). Informants are observing also changes in the environment that they are not relating to changes in climate, such as the decline in fish stocks due to overfishing, regulations, and allocations that do not take into consideration local knowledge of traditional fishers. These observations can contribute to increasing our understanding of how climate change and other factors are affecting the Heiltsuk territory.

11:30am
Author(s):
Eloheimo
, Marja - The Evergreen State College

In Finnish, “eloheimo” means “clan of the harvest” and “marja” means “berry.” Inspired by the importance of berries among people in Finland, including Indigenous Sámi, I modeled for my students at Evergreen incorporation of heritage studies into the academic program, “Arts, Culture, and Ecology.” Utilizing texts by E.N. Anderson and Nancy J. Turner, we examined cultural ecology broadly, along with specific ethnobotanical knowledge and practice among Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Long interested in relationality––understanding and fostering relationships among diverse people (including other-than-human persons) and between people and place––I have previously emphasized the relational potential of an ethnobotanical garden. Now I am observing how exploration of historical and contemporary culture-environment dynamics within one’s own heritage(s)––Native and non-Native alike—can contribute to cultivating ecocultural relationality. This presentation introduces Finnish berries, discusses relationality as paradigm, and considers an example of incorporating heritage exploration into studies of cultural ecology.

11:45am
Author(s):
Arias-Bustamante
, José - University of British Columbia

The effects of climate change can result in changes to livelihoods, human settlements, land use patterns and tenure systems. These changes and variations will demand greater resilience and adaptive capacity from local resource users. Moreover, climate change impacts coupled with current stresses on the environment from past human land use, development, and pollution threaten the survival and recovery of some ecosystems. Particularly in Chile, where land tenure and governance are unclear and conflicts remain active across the ancestral territories of Indigenous communities, a change in policy is definitely necessary from a climate change development point of view. So, in this context, this study is collaborating with Mapuche communities to understand how people with a livelihood affected by the constant conflict with forest companies, and other private landholders, adapt to the impacts of a changing climate in a way to secure their survival and their culture.

12:00pm to 1:00pm
(Thursday)
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Meet in Main Entrance Lobby & Eat Outside

Details

On Thursday during the lunch break we will have the Student Mentor Lunch. Board member Alex McAlvay (mcalvay@wisc.edu) is organizing this, and other, student events during the conference.

Please fill out this form if you are an interested student, and this form if you are willing to participate as a mentor. Deadline is May 1, 2017. 

12:15pm to 12:45pm
(Thursday)
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Meet in Main Entrance Lobby
1:00pm to 2:30pm
(Thursday)
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Ethnomedicines, Part I

Biodiversity Center Rm A

Presentations

Time Abstract
1:00pm
Author(s):
Bond
, Matthew - University of Hawai'i at Mānoa
Gaoue
, Orou - University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

Medicinal plants play a critical role in ecosystems, economies, and societies around the world. However, there is currently limited understanding of how people select medicinal plants; one hypothesis is that plant accessibility and abundance increases likelihood of medicinal use. The handful of studies that directly test this hypothesis show mixed results, which may be due to limitations in human/environment sample size and selection. Our research rigorously evaluates the availability hypothesis by surveying four subsistence villages in Solomon Islands using interviews with every adult (315 participants), and assessing plant availability in 50m² survey plots 0-2km from the center of each village (160 plots total) in a systematic random sampling scheme. Results show that species distance, abundance, and maturity have different effects on medicinal plant knowledge. By testing how plant availability affects medicinal plant knowledge, this project clarifies the processes of cognition and learning, and informs new approaches for biocultural conservation.

1:15pm
Author(s):
Stiegler
, Christopher - University of Arkansas

The Asteraceae is globally the largest family of flowering plants, and its economic and medical value is apparent cross-culturally. This study examines why genera of the Aster family have remained integral in human medicinal plant knowledge, and thereby reveals potential physiological mechanisms underlining patterns of Asteraceae use. Native American plant use frequencies and their corresponding applications for symptoms relating to human organ systems are examined. Analyses reveal that gastrointestinal ailments comprise more medical uses for the Asteraceae than any other organ system targeted by taxa within the family. It is posited here that the Asteraceae’s biochemical effects on the gastrointestinal tract continues to sustain human attraction to medicinal genera within the family. Data also suggest potential evolutionary advantages for human populations able to exploit the Asteraceae for medicine. While this study is limited to Native North America, the conclusions inform anthropological understandings of human-plant selection and co-evolution with the Asteraceae.

1:30pm
Author(s):
Cannon
, Carrie - Hualapai Tribe

The nutritional values of many wild foods are only recently gaining attention of western dietitians.  These foods however, have long been known by local Tribes for their nutritional and medicinal value.  So called “superfoods” are those foods which contain high amounts of phytonutrients and antioxidants.  Such foods can in some cases reduce the risk of chronic disease.  This talk will examine several key traditional foods of the Hualapai Tribe who live along the southern rim of the Grand Canyon of AZ; foods that have been utilized by the Tribal people for centuries.  

 

1:45pm
Author(s):
Teixidor-Toneu
, Irene - University of Reading
Martin
, Gary J. - Global Diversity Foundation
Puri
, Rajindra K. - University of Kent
Ouhammou
, Ahmed - Université Cadi Ayyad
Hawkins
, Julie A. - University of Reading

Traditional medicine practices are embedded in dynamic sociocultural systems, and are therefore context dependent. In Morocco, especially in rural areas such as the High Atlas Mountains, specialist healers called ferraggat are a key health resource to treat infants for ailments believed to be caused by supernatural forces: taqait, taumist and iqdi present symptoms similar to those of ear infections, tonsillitis and gastroenteritis. Their treatment, known as frigg, involves ritual and the use of medicinal plants. Our research shows that the emphasis on using plants may be a recent phenomenon in the practice of frigg. In the past, coloured wool and blood were used, but these have been substituted as local religious values aligned with orthodox Islam and the State organized biomedical system has come to dominate healthcare options. We illustrate a change in the objects of cultural meaning as a strategy to adapt to new sociocultural realities.

2:00pm
Author(s):
Tareau
, Marc-Alexandre - UMR LEEISA (Université de Guyane/CNRS)
Dejouhanet
, Lucie - AIHP-GEODE (Université des Antilles)
Palisse
, Marianne - UMR LEEISA (Université de Guyane)
Odonne
, Guillaume - UMR LEEISA (CNRS)

French Guiana is a French overseas territory located in South America, between Surinam and Northern Brazil. There, Amerindian peoples, Maroon and Creole populations, as well as recently immigrated communities, meet.

Cultural interactions are then complex and continuous. Both plants and their knowledge travel between the different communities, contributing to the renewing and continuous re-hybridization of present day phytotherapies.

Based on almost 200 interviews conducted on Guiana coastal area, and thanks to multivariate analyses, we draw an exploratory description of ethnobotanical flows. Our talk considers interchanged medicinal plants, involved stakeholders and knowledge circulation patterns, especially on border zones with Brazil and Surinam. Our ethnobotanical approach then appears quite relevant for understanding the role of knowledge and plant circulation in hybridization of Guiana pharmacopoeias and spreading of health practices.

1:00pm to 2:30pm
(Thursday)
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Role of Ethnobiological Traditional Knowledge in Conservation of Biodiversity

Amphithéâter Henry-Teuscher

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Anju Batta Sehgal Principal Govt. College Sujanpur, Dist. Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh. India-177005

Prior to the coinage of the term ‘Ethnobotany’ by Dr. John Harshberger in 1895, usage of plants by human beings found place in Sanskrit, Greek and Arabic literature, ethnographies travelogues, herbals, etc. (Mudgal, 1995). Since then, the scope, concepts and implications of ethnobotany have been expanding at a very fast rate (Schultes, 1960; Jain, 1967, 1986, 1987). Alcorn (1984) regarded ethnobotany as the study of contextualized plant use. Wickens (1990) defined ethnobotany as “The study of useful plants prior to their commercial exploitation and eventual domestication; it includes the use of plants by both tribal and non-tribal communities without any implication of primitive or developed societies”. This plant-man relationship has been classified into two categories: 1) Abstract, and 2) Concrete (Jain, 1987). The abstract relationship deals with taboos, avoidances, sacred plants, worship, folklore, etc. while the latter includes mainly with the material use and the acts of domestication, conservation, improvement or destruction of plants. More importantly, this study of plants in relation to people includes both wild and domesticated plants (Heiser, 1995). Pushpangadan (1990) treated ethnobotany/ ethnobiology as a study of the knowledge system pertaining to the multidimensional perspective of life, culture, traditions as well as interaction of traditional or less advanced human communities like tribals with  their local flora (ethnobotany) or fauna (ethnozoology). Pei (2001) regarded ethnobotany as the science which comprehends the relationship of a given society with its environment and, in particular, with the plant world; these relationships may be social, economic, ecological, symbolic, religious, commercial or artistic. Now-a-days, the subject of ethnobotany has been recognised as a rapidly expanding multidisciplinary natural science throughout the world, with many workers becoming involved in the practical application of its data in areas such as biodiversity prospecting and conservation biology.

          Indigenous societies/ tribals/ aborigines all over the world in different geographical regions are an invaluable bank of traditional knowledge. They are scattered over the face of earth in around 70 countries. Among them well over 150 million live in Asia; two thirds in China and India (Sinha, 1996). The strong basis of this traditional knowledge has been the necessity, instinct, curiosity and keen observation, constant trial and error, long experience and close association of indigenous people with nature (Jain, 2004). In fact, these societies are human conservatories which can’t be duplicated by application of science and technology. The decade beginning from January 1, 1995 was observed as the International Decade for the world’s Indigenous People. All over the world, the indigenous people have protected the biodiversity (forest and wildlife) because of their knowledge and traditional practices. The science of pharmacognosy  also owes its development at least in part to the native medicine men who recognized and used the therapeutic qualities of herbs. Undeniably, tribal knowledge of plants is important not just for the tribal people themselves but for the wider world (Maheshwari, 1987a, b). In this regard Swaminathan (1995) rightly pointed:  “Those who have conserved biodiversity tend to remain poor, while those who have converted such genetic diversity into commercial products through biological technology are rich”.  Unfortunately, there is no record of this knowledge. Janaki Ammal (1996) lamented that the tribal traditions are fast disappearing due to urbanisation, rapid industrialization and changes in sustenance economy. Of late, there has been a resurgence of interest all over the world in the study of primitive communities and tribal with an eye to potential future use for the ultimate welfare of humanity. One of the foremost and challenging tasks before the world community is to inventorise and record all ethnobiological information among the diverse ethnic communities before the traditional cultures are lost for ever (Rao, 1996).

The local communities are basically wise, eco-friendly and have a self-sufficient and self-reliant subsistence system as reflected by their dependence on a great diversity of plant species to ensure a year-round supply. At the same time, the practice reflects their conservational wisdom as it exerts less pressure on the available natural resources. Traditional knowledge will serve as a very valuable document for the planners, policy-makers, foresters, academicians and the scientific organizations on the basis of which better developmental schemes can be formulated for socio-economic uplifting of the rural inhabitants of the area.

 

Presentations

Time Abstract
1:15pm
Author(s):
Molnár
, Zsolt - MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary
Babai
, Daniel - MTA Centre for the Humanities
Biró
, Marianna - MTA Centre for Ecological Research
Kis
, József - Fábiánsebestyén
Máté
, János - Tatárszentgyörgy
Varga
, Anna - MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary

 

The mutual dependence of extensive land-use and conservation management has become apparent in Europe in the last decades. Extensive land-use and the connected traditional knowledge often survive in protected areas only, in the form of conservation management. However, there is a lack of understanding of the functioning of these traditional systems. We conducted participatory research to develop management practices in the Kiskunság and Hortobágy National Parks, Hungary. Using participatory techniques, we developed tradition-based conservation mangement practices and agricultural regulations that fit both the needs of conservationists, and the herders/farmers, and are region-specific and culturally appropriate. Twelve traditional herders, 7 mountain farmers and 14 conservation rangers participated in the research. Beside the usual reports and publications, films were produced, and one paper solely written by herders. Based on our common work, we introduce a new term, the 'conservation herder' - a traditional herder with an understanding of modern conservation concepts.

 

1:30pm
Author(s):
Linares
, Edelmira - Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico
Bye
, Robert - Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico
Mera
, Luz María - Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico

Due to alterations in the way of life of the Rarámuri and to the current school dynamics in the Sierra Tarahumara, large numbers of children live in boarding schools which serve industrialized meals based upon industrialized ingredients and only have contact with their families during weekends or vacation. This situation produces cultural changes in the food habits of children because the institutional meals contrast from their traditional diet that, upon returning home, they dislike and even spurn. As a consequence, the Rarámuri NGO, NATIKA, solicited us to document the preparation of some traditional foods so as to raise their social status in order to promote their consumption. Rarámuri foods are agrobiodiversity products of their milpas (multiple cropping systems). Because maize is the most important plant in their diet, the initial video focuses on ground popped-corn in the form of "pinole" and “esquiate”.

1:45pm
Author(s):
Orozco
, Jessica - Hualapai Tribe Department of Natural Resources

Fire as a land management tool has been employed by indigenous communities to maintain and extend native grasslands as well as prevent fire-intolerant trees and shrubs from taking over. The Black Canyon fire occurred in June 2012 on the west side of the Hualapai Indian reservation, burning approximately 18,300 acres. The fire burned communities of cactus, oak, pinion pines, juniper, and native grasslands in rangeland habitat. The Hualapai Department of Natural Resources has been conducting post-fire monitoring since the fire occurred. This post-fire monitoring project provides the opportunity to assess how natural landscapes respond to naturally occurring fires. Today, fire can help tribal communities dependent on ranching by improving the grazing land and forage for cattle. The baseline data gathered will be used and incorporated in future grazing management plans and will help the Hualapai tribe further exert their autonomy and stewardship over their tribal land base. 

1:00pm to 2:30pm
(Thursday)
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Solidarity, Allyship, & Justice in an "Applied" Ethnobiology, Part I

Biodiversity Center Rm B

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Chelsey Geralda Armstrong - Simon Fraser University
Alex McAlvay - University of Wisconsin, Madison

Ethnobiology is touted by many of its members as inherently applied towards social and environmental justice causes. The Society of Ethnobiology's (SoE) website greets visitors with a welcome stating, “We are a non-profit organization of scholars, activists and communities…” While many seasoned ethnobiologists in SoE have engaged their work with social and environmental application, early-career scholars have often wondered how they can increase the social and environmental applicability their own work, asking, “how can we be more applied” and “what are examples of an applied ethnobiology”? In the face of global climate change and on-going colonialism, we ask those who have engaged in applied ethnobiology or advocacy to explicitly outline how their work has contributed to issues of social and environmental justice, resource management, Indigenous solidarity and well-being, and/or other ends, and what tangible results their work has produced. By highlighting the applied work of multiple generations - from our Society’s elders to up-and-coming-scholars – we hope to open a dialogue on strategies and approaches for the future of an applied ethnobiology

Presentations

Time Abstract
1:00pm
Author(s):
Blazina
, Ashley - University of Washington

Academic calendars are based around annual segments of time. Scientific and academic grants are similarly limited to short timespans and deadlines. However, for work that involves multiple parties with different customs and practices surrounding time, these limits can be extremely restrictive. This paper examines how academic and grant timelines affect the amount of collaborative work or exchange a project will complete, as well as the depth and quality of associated interagency relationships and future partnerships. Examples of recent applied work and its challenges will be used to define and highlight more common struggles that researchers may experience on individual and institutional levels.

1:15pm
Author(s):
Emshwiller
, Eve - University of Wisconsin-Madison
Moscoe
, Lauren
Blas
, Raul - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

Ethnobiology research often depends on healthy collaborations with communities. These collaborations, however, should not end with fieldwork. Instead, we must explore creative means to share findings with collaborators. We describe a project we carried out in an effort to 1) be transparent with respect to research process and findings, 2) respond to needs expressed by communities, 3) offer gratitude to participants, and 4) contribute to local and regional agrobiodiversity conservation. We created catalogs describing the diversity of the Andean tuber, oca (Oxalis tuberosa), with respect to traditional knowledge and genetic data. We then printed and distributed these catalogs to participating farmers, research collaborators, and local government officials in Cusco Region, Peru. Projects such as ours are often difficult to execute for reasons related to time, funding, and training. We reflect on our experience as it relates to these challenges and share the lessons we learned along the way.

1:30pm
Author(s):
Reo
, Nicholas - Dartmouth College
Fox
, Coleen A.
Turner
, Dale A.
Cook
, JoAnne
Dituri
, Frank
Fessell
, Brett
Jenkins
, James
Johnson
, Aimee
Rakena
, Terina M.
Riley
, Chris
Turner
, Ashleigh
Williams
, Julian
Williams
, Mark

For researchers working in Indigenous territories, being effective allies requires strong, authentic relationships with Indigenous nations and their citizens. But what exactly is the connection between these relationships and “the work”, and how do we build authentic relationships if they do not already exist? We recently engaged in collaborative research with representatives from Anishnaabe and Māori nations to explore Indigenous forms of river care and protection. My presentation focuses on our research process and how relationship building was largely how we “did research”. We conducted an “Indigenous knowledge exchange”, involving visits to the communities and their rivers. We actively participated in local cultural protocols and practices, creating opportunities for cross-cultural dialogue and learning. Our process was informed by the exchanges described by Gearheard et al. 2006 and the “dialogic networks” described by Davidson-Hunt and O’Flaherty (2007). Immersive field experiences and open-minded team members were key elements of this successful exchange.

1:45pm
Author(s):
Hunn
, Eugene S. - University of Washington

Place names are cultural artifacts indicative of the cultural salience and occupational history of land-based communities. Indigenous place names are one key aspect of Traditional Environmental/Ecological Knowledge. I have recorded toponyms of the Sahaptin language (Columbia Plateau) since the 1980s by ethnographic, archival, linguistic and ecological research. I worked closely with the Tamástslikt Cultural Institute (TCI) of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to publish an atlas (Čáw Pawá Láakni ‘They Are Not Forgotten’) of culturally significant Indigenous places of the traditional territory of three confederated tribes, Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla. We have documented over 500 named Indigenous places, mapped them on the tribal GIS system, analyzed the semantic force of the names, and indicated their cultural ecological and historical significance. These data are being used by the CTUIR to replace certain offensive “colonial names” with Indigenous names and to defend treaty boundaries.

2:00pm
Author(s):
Sault
, Nicole - Sally Glean Center

My research has always depended on the trust and generosity of people in Latin America, and the many teachings they have imparted include appreciating interrelationships, reciprocity, responsibility toward others, and the power of each person’s contribution. Given these values as a model for action, how can I live with people and witness their suffering without responding somehow? In various places I have borne witness, documented issues, and stood with Indigenous peoples in their struggles. This has included working with School of the Americas Watch, joining the Caravan for Peace with Justice and Dignity, and promoting recycling programs. Often I am surprised by where this path takes me, as when learning about Andean condors revealed threats to sacred lands and water from mining. Such interconnections abound, even when unnoticed at first glance. Yet as ethnobiologists we are called to be aware of more than meets the eye.

1:00pm to 2:30pm
(Thursday)
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Zooarcheaology

IRBV Classroom (3rd Floor Main Bldg)

Presentations

Time Abstract
1:00pm
Author(s):
Wolverton
, Steve - University of North Texas, Department of Geography & the Environment
Otaola
, Clara - Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas, Buenos Aires
Giardina
, Miguel - Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina
Neme
, Gustavo - Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina
Gil
, Adolfo - Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina

Puesteros are pastoralists who live in many parts of the Andes. Many puesteros practice seasonal transhumance, and others are sedentary.  All puesteros are smallholder herders who raise goats, sheep, cattle, and horses. Like many pastoralists, puesteros are confronting rapid cultural and environmental change. We examine zooarchaeological data from puestos to study geographic variability in subsistence, with a particular emphasis on animal resource use. Our study focuses on puesteros who live in western, southern Mendoza Province, Argentina who live within the Rio Atuel and Rio Diamante valleys. In terms of political ecology, our study highlights the diversity and novelty of constraints faced by puesteros during a period of rapid social and environmental change.

1:15pm
Author(s):
Main Johnson
, Leslie - Athabasca University
Benditt
, Riva - Athabasca University

Our paper presents insights on the significance of plants, land and animals for well-being in the Mackenzie Delta region, Northwest Territories, Canada. We interviewed 12 Elders about relationships of land, language and traditional upbringing in healthy lives. Elders described use of plants as medicines, the gathering of berries as healthy foods, and learning about other traditional skills such as snaring rabbits or how to process a caribou. These stories were provided in the context of exploring how knowledge of language and growing up on the land contribute to life-long healthy life-styles. Tensions between the demands of jobs and the cash economy and the opportunities for pursuing a life on the land today were also described by the Elders as we explored how one might bring this knowledge forward for the youth.   

1:45pm
Author(s):
Grindle
, Dalyn - University of Wyoming
Rita
, Austin - University of Oklahoma
Hofman
, Courtney - Unversity of Oklahoma
Rick
, Torben - National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

Sturgeon remains are relatively rare in the archaeological record due to their largely cartilaginous skeleton. What remains are the scutes, bony scale-like plates found on the outside of the body, and some diagnostic cranial features. Consequently, questions remain about both the prehistoric dietary importance of sturgeon and the species that were being exploited in western North America. The Par Tee site on the Oregon Coast produced a massive faunal collection, allowing for the comprehensive analysis of usually under-represented faunal categories. Two sturgeon species on the Northwest coast, Acipenser medirostris and Acipenser transmontanus are both of conservation concern. Here we present the results of our analysis of sturgeon remains from the Par Tee site, including abundance and element data and ancient DNA species identifications. These data provide the first species identifications for sturgeon from the Oregon Coast and enhance our understanding of the prehistoric fishery.

2:00pm
Author(s):
Forth
, Gregory - Dept of Anthropology, University of Alberta

Recent research on Flores Island ( eastern Indonesia) concerning human relations with dugongs or ‘sea-cows’ Dugong dugong raises questions about the status of these marine mammals as revealed in indigenous mythology and folk taxonomy. A myth told by the Lio people of eastern central Flores describes dugongs as deriving from a human being, and apparently consonant with this mythical derivation Lio name dugongs ata ruju (‘dugong people’). Other evidence, however, shows that Lio conceive of the human-dugong relation in at least three different ways, and furthermore that Lio, in their classificatory practice and use of dugong products, treat the creatures as a kind of ‘fish’ (ika). The implications of these findings will be discussed in relation to new theories of ‘animism’ and especially the suggestion that reputed human derivation entails a view of non-humans as continuous with humans in regard to intentional agency and subjectivity.

3:00pm to 4:30pm
(Thursday)
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Archaeobotany

IRBV Classroom (3rd Floor Main Bldg)

Presentations

Time Abstract
3:00pm
Author(s):
Mueller
, Natalie - Washington University in St. Louis

Humans are the ultimate ecosystem engineers, and in transforming ecosystems we also change the selective environment for the plants and animals that live among us. The bodies and behaviors of domesticated plants and animals are thus rich artifacts of traditional ecological knowledge and practice. I study the morphology and behavior of domesticated plants as a proxy for ancient agricultural communities of practice. Evidence from the anlalysis archaebotanical assemblages sites in the American Bottom and Lower Mississippi River indicate the formation of distinct agricultural communities of practice prior to and during the coalescence of eastern North America's first and only pre-Columbian urban center, c. 1050 CE. 

3:15pm
Author(s):
Mathews
, Darcy - University of Victoria

Coast Salish peoples of southern Vancouver Island valued Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco; Pinaceae] as “Boss of all trees.” Its bark was well-regarded as the hottest and longest-burning fuel available on the Northwest Coast. Savannah landscapes around traditional Coast Salish winter village sites are characterized by small groves of veteran Douglas-fir trees, many of which display evidence of intensive and sustained bark removal. Triangulating between an ethnoecological analysis of these modified trees, regional archaeological data, and traditional ecological knowledge suggests that bark methodically collected from living savannah-grown trees was a sustainably harvested resource for use in specialized cooking, heating, and funerary ritual. Furthermore, the specific need for Douglas-fir bark, and the risk of exhausting this fuel in those places where need was greatest, meant that Douglas-fir trees around village sites required special management to prevent bark fuel depletion.

3:30pm
Author(s):
Goldfield
, Anna - Boston University
Wroth
, Kristen - Boston University

Most subsistence and isotope studies suggest that European Neanderthals focused their diet on large herbivores. We currently know little about the plant component of Neanderthal diet. Direct evidence for Neanderthal plant use comes from studies of residues on stone tools, starch remains on dental calculus, and phytolith studies. Though hardy plant resources such as starchy underground storage organs would have been available in Neanderthal environments, few records of Neanderthal plant use survive. 
We model the caloric and nutritional components of variable proportions of plant and animal foods in a hypothetical Neanderthal diet. We then determine the impact these diets might have had on the local ecology in terms of plant harvesting and rate of consumption. Finally, we compare the predictions derived from these models to a review of published literature on Neanderthal plant use, focusing on a case study of phytoliths from the site of Roc de Marsal (Southwest France).

3:00pm to 4:30pm
(Thursday)
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Community Dynamics, Identity, and Natural Resources

Biodiversity Center Rm B

Presentations

Time Abstract
3:00pm
Author(s):
Olofsson
, Ebba - Champlain Regional College/Concordia University

The focus of the presentation is understanding how the role and the status of Sámi women in the kinship system and in the reindeer herding were transformed over time in Norway and Sweden. What is the reason for men being considered the reindeer herders and not the women? Has it always been like that, i.e., that the men play a more important role in reindeer herding and so has a higher status in the Sámi society? In this research it is argued that this has not always been the case instead reindeer herding has become a dominant male occupation the implementation of the nation-states’ reindeer herding legislation. The gender roles in the Sámi communities are changing and new strategies for surviving and maintaining a Sámi identity are being formed. Many women in the reindeer herding Sámi communities are today working as wage-laborers and professionals, bringing in money to the family. 

3:15pm
Author(s):
Thiel
, Amanda - Washington State University

The Q’eqchi’ Maya in a tropical village in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, grow and manage home gardens alongside field-based horticultural subsistence activities. Home gardens are not named as such by the Q’eqchi’ Maya, but still serve functions such as provisioning of food, medicine, construction materials, ornament, and ecosystem services, among others. Based on semi-structured “plant walk” interviews with villagers ages 19-70, names and uses of home garden plants are analyzed across sex, age, and acculturation level to understand factors at play in local ethnobotanical knowledge and practice. Preliminary findings suggest relative equality of men and women’s knowledge which is consistent with other studies of Q’eqchi’ Maya home gardens in Alta Verapaz but contrasts with those of other Mayan groups. Many informants report theoretical knowledge but no practical experience using one or more plants for the identified purpose, possibly representing a decrease in plant use due to acculturation or other factors.

3:30pm
Author(s):
Stepp
, John Richard - University of Florida

It is now generally accepted that, in most instances, areas of high biodiversity are also areas of high sociolinguistic diversity (and vice-versa). What is less well understood is why these patterns occur. Researchers have promoted various (mostly reductionist) theories but a convincing holistic explanation has yet to emerge. This paper explores ways that the field of ethnobiology can contribute. Research is presented based on fieldwork in Latin America and Southeast Asia as well as a global database we have been developing over the last several years. Several reasons (ranging from the well-grounded to the merely speculative) are presented that explain the occurrence of biocultural diversity.

3:45pm
Author(s):
Montanari
, Bernadette - School of Earth, Society and Environment, University of Illinois, Champaign

Morocco benefits from major funding from the international donor agencies to address the issues of poverty, illiteracy, social exclusion and gender inequality. Yet, the country still struggles to integrate rural women in socio-economic development. The latest attempt, the Green Moroccan Plan (GMP) and the pillar II seek to integrate small traditional agriculture into a market economy. It particularly stipulates the creation of income generating activities (IGA) through cooperative structures for women. While the government is advocating -through a complex top-down institutional framework-, attention to women’s integration in participation, decision-making, capacity building and autonomy at household and community level, rural women remain on the margin of initiatives. In this presentation, I show that the government standardized strategies to include rural women into development do not benefit the local level. A new form of “initiative” that shifts the priorities to develop women’s social enterprise and encompass community socio-cultural attributes is timely.

4:00pm
Author(s):
Nazarea
, Virginia - University of Georgia

Culinary heritage revitalization and local food movements re-embed food into the socio-cultural fabric that gives it meaning and value while conservation in international gene banks and the Global Seed Vault guarantees more systematic, long-term storage but progressively dis-embeds germplasm from its various contexts. Small fields and rustic kitchens where seeds and knowledge are tastefully transmitted through commensality and storytelling are hardly recognized for their service to biodiversity conservation. Yet, along with memorialization in festivals and other social movements, these warm milieus nurture diverse seeds and foodways. How are boundaries and designations of milieus and sites shifting in modernity? What makes for sensuous conservation? How much work is involved in memorywork? I examine the life histories of Luisa Huaman, a potato farmer in Cusco, Peru and Isabel Alvarez, a rural sociologist who has researched traditional food and founded a popular restaurant that serves these dishes in Lima, Peru for clues.

3:00pm to 4:30pm
(Thursday)
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Ethnobotany, Part I

Amphithéâter Henry-Teuscher

Presentations

Time Abstract
Author(s):
Puri
, Rajindra - Centre for Biocultural Diversity, University of Kent

Across the planet, species are being lost or changing their ranges rapidly, leading to possibly major changes in human-ecosystem processes. Climate change is one of several interacting drivers of change. People must adapt to such change, and the ways they adapt will affect ecosystems and biodiversity, and human well-being. This presentation examines the importance of knowledge in responses to change, through a study of Indian cattle herders responses to Lantana camara, which now dominates their forest understory. Important knowledge includes the characteristics of the biodiversity that is changing, how it's changing and why, and how these changes affect other types of biodiversity and ecosystem processes at various scales. Our work in India demonstrates that knowledge change can be both cause and consequence of biodiversity change. This co-evolving and modular character of knowledge systems makes human adaptation to changes in biodiversity a more complex issue than one might first imagine.

3:00pm
Author(s):
Best
, Sunshine - Tulane University

Plants used by indigenous / pre-colonized societies throughout the world have gained Western attention as fad “exotic foods”. Yet reliable evidence-based knowledge about indigenous plants has yet to be shared with the public, especially plants of the African Diaspora. I’ll present how re-engagement of old-ways of plant use may be applied to various contemporary community health & wellness challenges through knowledge-sharing on local and transnational levels. Additionally I address the challenges of monoculture in community gardens. A solution: expanding the variety of plants through inception of a user content-driven, online platform of collected traditional plants from various cultures. An ethnobotany database with various applications, including evidence-based scientific citations. I’ll focus on the role of “Community Gardens” and benefits of establishing networks not only as vehicles for sharing diverse histories and cultures of food, but also as connecting points between people who share knowledge and skills.

3:15pm
Author(s):
Garineaud
, Clément - Muséum national d'histoire naturelle de Paris

If like Nabhan et al (2011) and Wyndham et al (2011) we believe that ethnobiology is able to provide answers to global crisis over long periods of time, we also think it can be relevant at local scales to understand the impact of exceptional climatic hazards. During the 2013-2014 winter, several storms struck France, causing a crisis situation in the seaweed harvest in Brittany. How did the seaweed harvesters react to this climatic hazard? We observed that many tools, harvesting techniques and harvesting timings adaptations based on very precise knowledge and representations have been implemented. This situation made it possible to better understand the harvesters' capacity of resilience. It also allowed to analyze the dynamics around the local knowledge, and in particular the hybridization between traditional and scientific knowledge that is currently influencing the management of the resource.

3:30pm
Author(s):
Heckelsmiller
, Cynthiann - Washington State University

Ethnobiological knowledge (EK) of plants and animals is acquired over an individual's lifetime according to environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors. Cultural factors such as dietary ideals and taboos dictate who can use resources like wild food plants in a society, and also can change from childhood to adulthood. These factors contribute to intra- and intergenerational variations in knowledge. This preliminary study explores the acquisition of edible wild plant EK among children in a Maasai village using interviews, free lists, and plant identification walks. The results suggest that there is a domain of wild plant foods that are specific to children. Future research should follow-up on free list data and include more systematic naturalistic observations to elucidate plant use and knowledge transmission. Applications for understanding child plant use in Maasai society include nutrition improvement initiatives and the preservation of traditional knowledge.

3:45pm
Author(s):
Pierotti
, Raymond - University of Kansas
Howe
, Nimachia

Western science acknowledges niche construction, where life forms create niches across a range of scales. Multigenerational changes affect selective environments of offspring and other species. Niitsitapii (Blackfoot) peoples of the northern plains embody their creator figure, Naapi, through movement or changes in the environment, involving all species. Naapi stories are rooted in movement; in points of transformation between types of matter or locations. Ontological connections link actions of plant and animal species through growth patterns, structures, seasons, and interactions. Animal species’ activities are noted and related to the constant exchanges between earth and sky, also impacts on plant species and on one another. Naapi stories involve immediate, abiotic reality with ecological relational levels. Both niche construction and Naapi stories involve apparent directional activity within unpredictably varying environments. This resolves a major evolutionary question, i.e. evidence of purpose and directed outcomes within a system resulting from apparently random events.

4:00pm
Author(s):
Flachs
, Andrew - Heidelberg University

In practice, smallholder Genetically Modified (GM) cotton fields in Telangana, India, contain a surprising agrobiodiversity including food plants, ornamentals, trees, and medicinals.  This persistent agrobiodiversity is sustained through cropping strategies and labor organization that encourage the planting and seed saving of non-cash crops in the field.  The twin developments of herbicide-tolerant GM cotton and high-density cotton planting systems threaten this reservoir of plant maintenance and knowledge by replacing biodiverse, knowledge intensive farming practices with a more absolute capital-intensive cash-cropping system.  While this shift may ultimately diminish the risk of pesticide exposure for cotton farmers and laborers, it also accelerates the trend toward smallholder capitalization, rural-urban migration, and monoculture.  This paper draws on research conducted 2012-2016. 

3:00pm to 4:30pm
(Thursday)
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Food & Water Sovereignty

Biodiversity Center Rm A

Presentations

Time Abstract
3:00pm
Author(s):
Dolan
, Jessica - McGill University

Haudenosaunee culture is fundamentally connected to the ecology of their homeland through food traditions. Many people are devoted to education and restoration of wild and heirloom food practices as key components of nutritional security, sovereignty, and justice. These educational efforts to transmit the knowledge and skills of traditional foods are central to ethical ecological identities and to peoples' ability to be environmental caretakers. This paper will contribute to these processes, by demonstrating the temporal depth and continuity of Haudenosaunee plant practices through archival and community sources from three time periods: 1. Oral history; 2. Archival sources from the 1940s - 1970s; 3. Recently compiled publications and my notes from 2011 - 2016. The paper will gather Haudenosaunee ethnobotanical knowledge, to be eventually depicted as a calendric cycle and in Indigenous ethnoecological mapping, to support cultural flourishing and the protection of biodiversity in the northeast.

3:15pm
Author(s):
Monterrubio Solís
, Constanza - UNAM, Becaria del Programa de Becas Post doctorales UNAM-CIMSUR

Small-scale agriculture in this border Mexican state is in constant transformation due to changes in land tenure and use patterns, market dynamics, and the consequent cultural transitions. This research explores the transition and processes of two groups of women who commercialize corn at the time they reflect on the need for food sovereignty in two regions of Chiapas.  By looking at knowledge transmission, the dynamics in their diets and preparations in relation to the production of local market goods, I look at the roles and adaptations of women and culinary traditions in transforming food systems.  This work also illustrates the potential of native seeds and culinary traditions that are important for the sustenance of the household and recovering/maintaining food sovereignty. Results of this research are analyzed through the light of the potential of food traditions for food sovereignty and bio-cultural heritage conservation. 

3:30pm
Author(s):
Dixon
, Anna - USF St. Petersburg

The only North American member of the ancient cycad group, Zamia floridana was once widespread in tropical Florida, and was a source of food for humans and other animals for millennia.  Its caudices provided a staple starch used by the indigenous peoples of Florida to make a bread known as kunti hatke.  Foraging groups like the Calusa harvested it in large quantities. When Europeans arrived in the 16th century, they also used coontie as food and a thriving industry existed for over 200 years. Because the unprocessed caudex contains toxic cyanide compounds, processing was a complex procedure; yet, the product was so valuable that it was still profitable. Now, populations of these slow-growing plants have become attenuated and their collection from the wild is outlawed.  Zamia floridana and the important role that it plays in Florida’s indigenous culture and sensitive ecosystem is in danger of being lost.

3:45pm
Author(s):
Salick
, Jan - Missouri Botanical Garden

Climate change on the northeast coast is prominent with rising seas, breaking high temperature records, droughts and floods, all resulting in a rapidly changing environment. The Narragansett (Algonquin) are struggling to revitalize their historically decimated culture while the environment upon which their culture is based is changing rapidly.  Their Indigenous Knowledge (IK) is being applied within the Narragansett Food Sovereignty Initiative – including strategies for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change.   Food Sovereignty, as opposed to sustainability or security, is a bottom up (local) process that defines goals and power relations before methods and outcomes are identified.  Through the UN Climate Change COP-22 we advocate environmental and social justice for indigenous peoples, in general, and the Narragansett, in particular.   International and national agreements are ethical only as they recognize indigenous rights and are just only as they are applied equitably to include indigenous peoples and their traditional ecological knowledge.

4:00pm
Author(s):
Mt.Pleasant
, Jane - Cornell University

Many indigenous communities are returning to traditional foods and practices, referred to as Food Sovereignty, to support values and practices that encourage human and environmental sustainability. Traditional Haudenosaunee foodways provide a model to implement food sovereignty in contemporary indigenous communities. The Haudenosaunee relied on many plant and animal species, harvested at multiple times and places in the landscape. Their food plants included wild and cultivated species, trees, shrubs, grasses, and herbs, and includied annual and perennial plants. This diversity of plants stabilized the ecosystem, while also supporting peoples’ health. The food system was also grounded in a radically different relationship between people and their natural environment. Haudenosaunee view all parts of the natural world as kin, members of an extended family. Compared to western agriculture, this worldview led to profoundly different agricultural practices, particularly in annual crop production. This paper explores these issues and their relationships to Food Sovereignty.

5:30pm (Thursday)
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Keynote Address

Amphithéâter Henry-Teuscher

Session Description

Linda Black Elk

Speaker: Linda Black Elk

Title: “I Fight for My Children”: Pipelines, Plants and People in Indigenous Communities

Location: Montreal Botanical Garden
Date: Thursday, May 11, 2017
Time: 5:30pm

Linda Black Elk Linda (Catawba Nation) is an ethnobotanist specializing in teaching about culturally important plants and their uses as food and medicine. Linda works to protect food sovereignty, traditional plant knowledge, and environmental quality as an extension of the fight against hydraulic fracturing and the fossil fuels industry. She has written for numerous publications, and is the author of “Watoto Unyutapi”, a field guide to edible wild plants of the Dakota people. Linda is the mother to three Lakota boys and is a lecturer at Sitting Bull College in Fort Yates, North Dakota.

7:30pm (Thursday)
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TBA – Meet after the Keynote Address

Friday, May 12, 2017

8:30am to 10:00am
(Friday)
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Birds, Plants and Other People: Ecological and Cultural Relationships Across Species Boundaries, Part II

Biodiversity Center Rm A

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Nicole Sault, Sally Glean Center, California
Marco Antonio Vásquez-Dávila, Instituto Tecnológico del Valle de Oaxaca, México

Ecological research demonstrates the complex interconnections between different species and the environment. This knowledge is also encoded in various cultural traditions through myths, rituals, and rules of etiquette. While Western science divides living things into taxonomic categories based on genetics and anatomical characteristics, cultures around the world have created categories that cross the boundaries of animal, plant, human, and the environment. These categories reflect relationships between beings that appear in different forms but are connected through kinship, ties to the land, spirit essence and mythological origins. This session addresses both biological and culturally defined interrelationships between birds and other beings, whether these are plants, animals, mushrooms or landscapes. To better understand avian relationships with others, special attention is given to the traditional environmental knowledge of indigenous or First Nations peoples. This knowledge can aid in better understanding the impact of global climate change and the role of humans as custodians and caretakers of the environment.

Presentations

Time Abstract
8:30am
Author(s):
Park
, Karen - University of Pittsburgh

The Western practice of grouping and classification extends beyond the natural world to the very identities and practices of the people who engage daily in acts of investigation, preservation, and even simple appreciation. Different institutions and pursuits create human dichotomies – practice or theory, conservation or scholarship, local or outsider. Within this professional and personal typology, cross-disciplinary, cross-institutional, and cross-cultural collaboration can prove challenging. Yet the power and necessity of such collaboration with regards to the human role in safeguarding our planet in all its spectacular diversity is well recognized. Taking up the familiar theme of biocultural conservation, and the parallels between biodiversity and linguistic diversity, this presentation briefly explores the triumphs and pitfalls of previous cross-expertise collaborations before turning to the birds to suggest a future model of biologically and culturally defined interrelationships that has the potential to further contribute to best practices in biocultural resilience and environmental protection.    

 

8:45am
Author(s):
Ignace
, Marianne - Simon Fraser University
Ignace
, Ronald - Simon Fraser University and Skeetchestn Indian Band

A common diving bird on lakes throughout Interior British Columbia, loons (Gavia immer) occupy an interesting position among the Secwepemc. Like other Indigenous groups, the Secwepemc explain the origin of the loon’s “necklace” as deriving from its characteristics.  Beyond that, loons  were known as one of the most powerful and cherished seméc or guardian spirits acquired by shamans (t̓kwilc) and other trainees for spirit power. In narratives of encounters with settlers, colonizers and British monarchy, loons play an important role as transcending colonial powers, vanquishing settler powers and speaking to the interactions of humans and birds in nature and spirit. We will address the role of loons in narratives recorded in the early 1900s by ethnographers, but also in previously little known Secwepemc narratives of colonial encounters which throw light on loons as natural species and as embodying powers of resistance.

9:00am
Author(s):
Sault
, Nicole - Sally Glean Center

Biologists have long recognized the importance of birds for pollination and distributing seeds, but the connections between birds and plants are broader and deeper than what scientists have observed. For indigenous peoples of Latin America birds not only contribute to plant growth through pollination and seed dispersal but also assist through underlying spiritual relationships. Examples from Costa Rica and the Andes illustrate how birds such as vultures and condors that outsiders do not associate with plants are perceived as carrying seeds, protecting tubers, and enabling plants to grow. For these societies, the key cultural boundaries that define the world into separate categories are not simply animal, plant and stone. Rather, the meaningful categories express spiritual relationships that go beyond physical form to incorporate ritual alignments and kinship ties based on reciprocal rights and obligations.  Vulture, Condor and even Fox participate in activities that benefit plants, people, and other beings.

8:30am to 10:00am
(Friday)
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Ethnobotany, Part II

Amphithéâter Henry-Teuscher

Presentations

Time Abstract
8:30am
Author(s):
Antonio
, Thomas - Institute of American Indian Arts

Nixtamalization is the traditional practice of preparing soaked corn with wood ash. Tribes of North America prefer to use nixtamalized maize for many traditional and staple dishes (such as hominy, posole, tortillas, tamales, and Piki bread, a type of Hopi tortilla). Science courses at Institute of American Indian Arts honor the centuries-old practice (indigenous knowledge systems) of how Native Americans make corn more digestible and nutritious, and then provide the scientific understanding of how this process works. Using pH meters we demonstrate how color changes are affected by the addition of sodium carbonate (ash) prepared from burned Four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) or Juniper (Juniperus monosperma).  This process releases the vital nutrient niacin (Vit.B3) making it available for absorption into the body. It also significantly reduces (by 90-94 %) mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, molds that commonly infect maize and are recognized carcinogens.

8:45am
Author(s):
Gagnon
, Terese - Syracuse University

Drawing on ethnographic research with Karen refugees in Syracuse N.Y. this paper considers garden planning from an embodied perspective. Eduardo Kohn in How Forests Think asks how forests think themselves in us. Complementarily, I consider how plants grow and move themselves in us and how this cross-species reproduction functions in displacement. I ask: how does Karen seed/body memory forget as well as remember, as Karen people and plants from Burma make themselves anew in resettlement? I investigate the plants gardeners seek out, noting those that cannot be obtained. I describe the sensuous experiences wrapped up in this searching and their cross-generational dimensions. Documenting the skills perpetuated (or not) by these practices, I examine the way motions call forth seeds/plants, and seeds/plants request or even require particular ways of being and knowing. Finally, I consider how these processes are relevant to understanding bio-cultural reproduction and relationships between humans and other beings.

9:00am
Author(s):
MBUGUA
, PAUL - Member of Society of Economic Botany, Kenya Chapter

This paper reviews the uses of Sansevieria plants in the various parts of the world where it grows in the wild. A few cases where its utility is mainly ornamental are also elucidated. The uses are world wide based of the thesis by the author which covered world wide vegetation of all Sanseveirias then known – mid 1990s. The herbaria covered in the study included Kew, Missouri, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam. The uses notes on herbaria sheets are discussed and presented to those who may not know much about Sansevieria - the major uses being mainly ornamental, fiber and a plant that little else is known. Being succulent, this genus presents interesting plants many plant enthusiasts hardly engage in their green houses – yet here lies the secret, they are very hardy, few disease and little watering hence the cost of their husbandry is low.

9:00am
Author(s):
Smith
, Tyler - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Oberndorfer
, Erica - Labrador Institute

Rhubarb/Sennâluk (Labrador Inuttitut)/Rheum sp. is a prominent plant in Labrador. It grows in gardens, and persists at former settlement sites through self-seeding. Native to Asia, rhubarb was likely introduced by Moravian missionaries in the late 18th century at Labrador mission stations as a medicinal plant, and has since become a valuable local food plant that has been widely shared and transplanted along the Labrador coast. Combining oral family stories and microsatellite markers, we have started to look at how the “genealogy” of Labrador rhubarb is tied to relationships, travels and sharing among families in northern and central Labrador. Our preliminary results show several rhubarb genetic clusters. One cluster corresponds to recently introduced commercial stock. However, the distribution of alleles in the other clusters is consistent with oral histories documenting the exchange of plants through extensive family networks that may trace back to the original Moravian introductions.

9:15am
Author(s):
Sato
, Yasuaki - Osaka Sangyo University, Japan

The Baganda people of Central Uganda have embraced the diversity of banana landraces while developing a unique livelihood system based on banana cultivation. To elucidate the mechanism of how this diversity is maintained, it is essential to consider the social aspects of this population. This paper describes the processes involved in receiving, keeping and exchanging the banana landraces. In this area, farmers continue treating the banana plants individually at the same places, and they clearly remember when and how they received each landrace. The land tenure system has ensured them to repeatedly cultivate the same landraces of bananas at the same places, as well as to preserve the sentiments and memories attached with these landraces. The interviews revealed that the landraces have accumulated over decades in the homegardens of each household. In other words, the increase in the number of landraces parallel to the household formation results in the diversity.

9:30am
Author(s):
Bisulca
, Christina - Detroit Institute of Arts
Mori
, Chika - Arthur M. Sackler and Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution
Pool
, Marilen - Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona
Odegaard
, Nancy - Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona

The exudate from lac insects (Tachardiella spp.) is used as an adhesive throughout the cultures of Southwest.  It was used extensively by the O’odham and Seri, and in the archaeological record it has been found in Hohokam, Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan artifacts.  This insect exudate also contains a red dye:  in Asian lac (Kerria spp.), this dye (“lac dye”) is extracted and used commercially.  The dye from Tachardiella spp. was analyzed with liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy and was found to contain the same dye components as Asian lac dye but in a different proportion. Using this unique distribution of dye components, it is possible to distinguish American from Asian shellac.  This technique was used to analyze a sample from a repair on a Tohono O’odham vessel (1700-Present) in the collections of the Detroit Institute of Arts, and results show it is consistent with an indigenous repair.

8:30am to 10:00am
(Friday)
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Historical Ecology & Ethnoecology, Part II

IRBV Classroom (3rd Floor Main Bldg)

Presentations

Time Abstract
8:30am
Author(s):
Greening
, Spencer - Gitga'at First Nation
Lepofksy
, Dana - Simon Fraser University
Letham
, Bryn - University of British Columbia
Turner
, Nancy - University of Victoria

Historical Ecology is ideally situated to blend the past with the present by integrating knowledge and worldviews from diverse academic and non-academic communities.  Blending this approach with Indigenous knowledge plays an increasingly vital role in academic scholarship, Canadian law and policy, and the environmental awareness. We describe how our research team, composed of ecologists, archaeologists, ethnoecologists, and ethnographers, is documenting people’s long-term knowledge of and interactions   with Laxgalts’ap – a cultural keystone place of Gitga’at First Nation, in Northern British Columbia. Through interviews in Sm’algyax and English, archaeological survey and excavation, we document how Gitga’at identity is embedded in the landscape.  The results of the project will eventually be presented in a multi-layered web site that represents the many dimensions Gitga’at’s place-based identity. Through this project, we reflect on the process of strengthening rights, title, resource management, and language revitalization by incorporating Gitga’at knowledge and methodologies into historical ecological research.

8:45am
Author(s):
Toniello
, Ginevra - Simon Fraser University, Hakai Institute
Lepofsky
, Dana - Simon Fraser University, Hakai Institute
Rowell
, Kirsten - University of Colorado

Clam gardens along the Northwest Coast of North America are the physical remains of traditional mariculture practices. On northern Quadra Island, British Columbia, the dense concentration of clam gardens and associated large shell middens reflect the cultural importance of clam harvesting. Spatial analysis of clam gardens demonstrates this importance, as clam gardens represent 15.5 hectares (ha) of clam habitat surface area, and building the gardens increased the surface area of clam habitat by up to 8.3 ha (54%). Microscopic analysis of butter clam (S. gigantea) shells over a 11,500-year period provides a long-term history of clam growth. These data suggest that with the exception of the late Pleistocene, there is little difference in clam growth throughout this time. Thus, increasing clam habitat, rather than the effects of tilling, controlled harvesting, or changing substrate, is the single largest benefit to overall clam production.

9:00am
Author(s):
Zeng
, Lily - Yale University

The recent promotion of sacred groves among conservation scientists tends to assume a static and unchanging brand of indigenous culture and traditional knowledge, whereas indigenous peoples have long negotiated the maintenance of sacred groves and understandings of sacred nature with land use shaped by sociopolitical and economic pressures. In Xishuangbanna, a region home the world’s northernmost tropical rainforest and China’s richest biodiversity, I examine the regeneration of sacred groves and cultural knowledge in ongoing community-based projects by indigenous Dai people, scrutinize the influence of conservation research organizations, and analyze successes and failures of outsider-led forest restoration projects. I couple ethnographic analyses with the study of botanical regeneration processes in sacred groves to understand how changing ecological conditions can influence environmental politics and the co-production of dynamic socio-ecological landscapes. I argue that regeneration has functioned as a “reinvented tradition,” a means through which communities can reshape identity and negotiate collective interests.

9:15am
Author(s):
Lullfitz
, Alison - University of Western Australia
Pettersen
, Carol - Menang Noongar Elder
Reynolds
, Ron (Doc) - Esperance Nyungar Elder
Dortch
, Joe - University of Western Australia
Guilfoyle
, David - Applied Archaeology International
Hopper
, Stephen - University of Western Australia
Eades
, Aden - Menang Noongar Elder
Dean
, Averil - Menang Noongar Elder
Knapp
, Lynette - Menang Noongar Elder
Yorkshire-Selby
, Gail - Esperance Nyungar Elder
Woods
, Eliza - Menang Noongar Elder
Woods
, Treasy - Menang Noongar Elder
Eades
, Eugene - Menang Noongar Elder

Home to an estimated 8000 native plant species, of which approximately half are endemic, south western Australia is recognized as one of 35 global biological hotspots.  This complex and uniquely evolved flora is focused on highly weathered, nutrient poor soils within ancient landscapes that appear unusually resilient to fragmentation but highly vulnerable to disturbances. At least eleven other hotspots include ancient landscapes.

Noongar habitation of south western Australia dates to at least 48,000 years before present, representing one of the world’s longest examples of sustained human ecological influence.  Through collaborative, on-country research and review of historical records, we have examined contemporary and historic ethnographic, as well as archaeological evidence of Noongar cultural practice in the context of varying landscape age. Here we outline some key Noongar conservation strategies such as diverse biological resource use, habitat modification, seasonal calendars, place and resource restrictions, rights and responsibilities, and biodiversity teaching through storytelling.

9:30am
Author(s):
Hagwood
, Austin - University of Cambridge

Papua New Guinea’s rainforests contain 8% of terrestrial biodiversity, yet 25% of the country's forest cover was lost or degraded from 1972-2002. In Vanimo, West Sepik Province, trees provide everything from food and shelter to sacred medicines and political boundaries. But as Malaysian loggers build new oil palm plantations, a conflict grows between forest-dependent peoples and those seeking paychecks in a cash economy. In response to deforestation and associated climate change, the UN launched REDD in 2008 to incentivize forest conservation through carbon trading. While the initiative is gaining ground among resource owners, plant-based sorcery remains a powerful mechanism for political control in land disputes. And with forest disappearing at an unprecedented rate, plants used for magical protection are increasingly scarce. In my paper, I examine sorcery practices within the context of environmental politics, provide examples of sacred plants currently threatened by logging, and offer proposals for equitable REDD+ implementation.

8:30am to 10:00am
(Friday)
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Stewardship & Education

Biodiversity Center Rm B

Presentations

Time Abstract
8:30am
Author(s):
Anderson
, E. N. - University of California, Riverside

Northwest Coast Indigenous peoples have achieved a reputation over the last few decades for their extremely good and detailed environmental management and care, as detailed in works by Indigenous scholars such as Charles Menzies and Richard Atleo as well as settler scholars like Nancy Turner and Dana Lepofsky.  Myths have been used to teach proper and improper treatment of animals and plants.  I am now surveying recorded myths to get a full count, with attention to themes such as: punishment for disrespectful treatment (including overhunting and overcollecting); reward for respectful treatment; and actual direct instruction.

 

8:45am
Author(s):
Tom
, Whitley - Southern Utah University Student
Montoya
, Nancy - Cedar Breaks National Monument Lead Interpretive Ranger
Sewings
, Daphne - Cedar Breaks National Monument Cheif of Education and Partnership

The Stories of the Past project: Hosted by Cedar Breaks National Monument with the help of Southern Utah University Intergovernmental Internship Cooperative agency. The project was design to help create a relationship with the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah and Cedar Breaks National Monument. To help preserve the Paiute culture and history with the help of involving the Paiute Elders and tribal members. By inviting them to the monument to share their stories, history, and traditions. This project was a great success as well as informing and educating the public about the Paiute Tribe.

9:00am
Author(s):
Paul
, Andrew - Karen Environmental and Social Action Network

The Salween Peace Park is a grassroots initiative to promote peace and biocultural conservation in an area emerging from decades of armed conflict between successive Burmese military governments and the Karen movement for self-determination. My Masters research, in collaboration with the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network, is a case study of Indigenous environmental relations in a Karen community within the Salween Peace Park. My research explores the rich ceremonial and spiritual traditions of this animist community, and how these traditions promote a praxis of Indigenous conservation. I further investigate the ways in which these beliefs and practices are being taken up and reworked to create the Salween Peace Park, a 5,205-square kilometre Indigenous Community Conserved Area (ICCA) encompassing dozens of customary community territories, community forests, and wildlife sanctuaries, all dedicated to conserving biological and cultural diversity while promoting peace and national reconciliation in Burma.

9:15am
Author(s):
Lepofsky
, Dana - Simon Fraser University, Hakai Institute
Carpenter
, Jennifer - Heiltsuk Integrated Resource Management Dept (HIMRD)
Wunsch
, Mark - Greencoast media
Turner
, Nancy - University of Victoria, Hakai Institute
Jackley
, Julia - Simon Fraser University, Hakai Institute

There are some cultural landscapes that are inseparably intertwined with the history, identity, and well-being of particular groups today.  These connections grow out of generations of people interacting with these landscapes in a myriad of ways.  Hauyat, on the central coast of British Columbia, is one such place for the Heiltsuk First Nation. At Hauyat, studies of marine and terrestrial ecologies have been inspired and informed by documentary and oral histories of Heiltsuk connections to place. These connections are embedded in place names, songs, anthropological and archaeological records, oral traditions, and memories.  To present these layers in a way that reflects their multi-dimensional connections, and to be accessible to the Heiltsuk and other communities, we have assembled the eco-cultural data in a web site and touch screen to be placed in the community.  In our presentation, we will explore Hauyat together by presenting an overview of this web site.

9:30am
Author(s):
Walshaw
, Sarah - Senior Instructor, Department of History, Simon Fraser University.

Teaching history through ethnobiological and food lenses permits a fresh examination of stories we think we know, and can open new avenues of inquiry altogether. When constructing the African past, however, much historical documentation is shaped and narrowed by Eurocentric bias, including gendered expectations, racialized power structures, and grain-centric agricultural ideals. Moreover, popular conceptions of African food and farming are influenced by narrative tropes of famine, political insecurity, and exoticism perpetuated by mainstream media. How do we approach African agricultural practices, foodways, and food security against these shortcomings? Taking cues from recent headlines and research findings, I discuss ways to present students with alternate understandings of food history, and even food itself, rooted in logics local to several communities in Africa.

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Friday)
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Engaging Communities & Ethics in Context: The Process of Initiating Ethnobiological Fieldwork, Part II

IRBV Classroom (3rd Floor Main Bldg)

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Armando Medinaceli - Ethics Committee, Latin American Society of Ethnobiology - manduche@gmail.com
Erendira Cano - Ethics Committee, Latin American Society of Ethnobiology

The intention of this session is to discuss and reflect on the ways researchers are engaging with communities before, during and after data collection. Ethnobiology and anthropology, among other disciplines, deal directly with communities. But fieldwork does not start, or should not start, with the arrival at field sites for data collection. It is imperative that we take a first step before the “first step” of data collection to obtain permission/consent. 

Drawn from current discussions about ethics in ethnobiological research and our direct experience in collaboration with communities, this session will discuss how researchers are currently obtaining permission and consent to work with communities. We will aim to answer questions such as: 

  • Are we following the local customs and traditions of the communities in which we are working?
  • Are we following regulations imposed by our institutions (i.e., IRB)? Are those enough?
  • What other types of regulations do we follow, if any (national/international laws and regulations, codes of ethics, etc.)?
  • How are we portraying our ethics in our research, presentations and publications?
  • Should we do more?

This session will present several examples from around the world of how to “start” field work with communities. We invite discussion and reflection on the different ways of interacting with collaborators/informants, and how to portray this process in the final products of research.

Within the Latin American Society of Ethnobiology’s Ethics committee (SOLAE-EC), we are encouraging members of SOLAE and other ethnobiology researchers to make a reference within their work (i.e., methods section in a publication) of what ethical, legal or consuetudinary regulations the researchers are following. Making this explicit respects the people we collaborate with, adds value to the research, and also encourages good and ethical research practices.

Presentations

Time Abstract
10:30am
Author(s):
McCune
, Letitia - BotanyDoc, LLC

In 2016 two sessions on ethics, one at the conference of the Society of Ethnobiology and one at the conference of the Society for Economic Botany, resulted in the input by the audiences of what these societies could address in relation to ethics. This presentation will condense these comments, address some overarching themes and present some answers and potential means for these societies to continue giving guidance on ethics to its members. One of the biggest benefits of being a member of these societies is access to other member’s experiences—how can these experiences be disseminated? Access to experiences on permit requirements, on development of agreements and creation of research partnerships can benefit members following a society’s code of ethics. Information will be given related to the presenter’s experiences with IRBs, agreement creation and contracts. The audience will be asked to log additional questions/comments during the presentation.

10:45am
Author(s):
Porter
, Caitlin - Saint Mary's University, Ecology of Plants in Communities lab
Oberndorfer
, Erica - Labrador Institute
Lundholm
, Jeremy - Saint Mary's University, Ecology of Plants in Communities lab

Barrens are ecologically and culturally important ecosystems that provide habitat for a diversity of species.  Within the maritime provinces of Canada, barrens are concentrated in Nova Scotia and span a variable geography of environmental and cultural contexts. Our current model of barrens vegetation suggests that some barrens are persistent over long time scales, primarily maintained by climatic and environmental processes. There is strong evidence that other barrens are dynamic; their area expands or contracts over decadal time scales. We are just beginning to learn about the likely cultural role in explaining the persistence and dynamics of barrens.  For some sites, written and oral histories document intense interactions between people and barrens such as fire or sheep grazing. Given the cultural importance of many sites and evidence for human interaction with vegetation dynamics, much more research is required to understand the role of people in creating the current mosaic of barrens.

 

11:00am
Author(s):
Ferenczi
, Natasha-Kim - SFU

Broadening understandings and conceptualizations of people-plant relationships is becoming a vital component in the disbanding of colonial legacies. This presentation focuses on some emergent constitutions of plants as active agents and the ways they configure different people and plant relationships and approaches to conservation. Drawing on ethnographic research carried out in Talamanca, Costa Rica and British Columbia, Canada, I discuss some concerns that people working with plant medicines have with conservation approaches based on imagined divides separating humans and non-humans. I examine some of the consequences of various constructions of plants as subjective beings and causal agents and the ways that plant-centrism can also uphold strong nature and society dualisms. Supporting cultural and environmental conservation demands a robust reflexivity into the ways plant identities and agency are constituted to ensure that they do not engage hegemonic forms of normalization and regulation that are consistent with enduring forms of colonization.

11:15am
Author(s):
Davy
, Damien - UMR LEEISA (CNRS)
Panapuy
, James - PAG (Amazonian National Park/Parc Amazonien de Guyane)
Odonne
, Guillaume - UMR LEEISA (CNRS)

Since the entry into force of the Nagoya protocol, researchers has to comply with a package of regulations. French Guiana, as an overseas territory, is subject to French and European laws, but presents a specific context due to the presence of indigenous peoples.

A CNRS team, asked by some Teko Amerindians to document their ethnobotany, is experiencing since 2013 the Access and Benefit Sharing procedures. This process is pioneering in France as it only applies, to now, within the Amazonian national park (PAG).

We will describe this case where cohabit, not without complexity, indigenous peoples, researchers, elected representatives, biodiversity managers (PAG) and indigenous organizations. We will then decipher the mechanisms leading to standstills or facilitations. Lastly, we will analyze their consequences and propose potential improvements in order to develop research in the service of Indigenous people, according to the Nagoya protocol, and give new insights into the practice of ethnobiology.

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Friday)
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Ethnomedicines, Part II

Biodiversity Center Rm A

Presentations

Time Abstract
10:30am
Author(s):
Chandler-Ezell
, Karol - Stephen F. Austin State Univ., Dept. Anthropology, Geography, & Sociology

This paper is a progress report on ethnobiologicals used by local practitioners in Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana.  Practitioners of folk medicine from several ethnic and cultural backgrounds provide personalized services for family, friends, and clients in this region. After literature review and local observations, key informants and the snowball technique are being used to identify practitioners and clients.  So far experts identifying as practitioners of Santeria, Rom, Hoodoo, Native American, Wicca, Curanderismo, and mixed folk medicines have been identified.  A variety of plant, mineral, and animal substances are in use in rituals and practices for physical and spiritual healing, mental health care, nutrition, and supernatural goals.  At this stage, preliminary analysis is aimed at creating a catalog and taxonomic understanding of practices, practitioners, clients, materials, and information sources in this region.

10:45am
Author(s):
Musch
, Tilman - University of Bayreuth (Germany)

The contribution discusses the use of five plants relevant in “traditional” treatments of envenomation by Naja nigricollis Reinhardt Elapidae bites among Zarma and Tuareg in Western Niger. First, it comments envenomation symptoms with reference to local representations of illness and to scientific reports. Then herbal treatments with their phytochemical constituents are described and the possible activity of the latter is commented. Finally, particular interest will be paid to the question if constituents of medical plants, besides their activities on envenomation symptoms, may also have antidotal properties. 

10:45am
Author(s):
Phumthum
, Methee - Aarhus University
Balslev
, Henrik - Aarhus University

Plant ethnomedicinal knowledge (PEK) is abundant among ethnic minorities who migrated to Thailand centuries ago. However, the flora in Thailand is different from where they migrated from. We asked whether their current PEK is conserved knowledge developed in their original habitat or whether it is new knowledge developed after settling in Thailand. Data on PEK from all accessible sources from 1990 to 2014 were collected. All studied villages were clustered based on their PEK. Similarity of PEK in villages of each tribe was evaluated using Informant Consensus Factors (ICFs), which ranges from 0 – 1, where the higher of ICF values, the more similar of PEK. The results showed that the clustering diagram showed different patterns depending on their migration history and ICF analysis showed low similarity of PEK in any given tribe. This suggests that much PEK possessed by the ethnic minorities has developed after they settled in Thailand.

11:00am
Author(s):
Gardener
, Erica

Marijuana legalization has been one and the same with redefining marijuana activity as respectable, and yet the respectability of some always relies on the lack of respectability of others.  The “healing” activities of professional marijuana distributors and consumers are thus constructed against the “damaging” equivalent activities of persons of colour and the white working class.  My project thus approaches marijuana legalization as a form of colonialist primitive accumulation, in which the local traditional knowledge of diverse marijuana workers is appropriated for the service of Empire just as the same workers watch their related livelihoods and the marijuana Commons itself disappear.  Pro-legalization enthusiasts confuse consumer desire with a commitment to social justice when they suggest that neoliberal marijuana reform will translate into less violence and incarceration faced by Mexicans and black Americans.  With attention to colonial history as well as current border politics, I proceed to illustrate a likely opposite scenario.

11:15am
Author(s):
Bye
, Robert - Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Linares
, Edelmira - Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Carrillo
, Guadalupe - Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Toronjil medicinal complex consists of various native Mexican taxa of Agastache (5 of the 12 species of the section Brittonastrum) and European species (Dracocephalum moldavica and Melissa officinalis). Since the prehispanic period, they have been and continue to be used to treat such ailments as digestive disorders, culturally affiliated syndromes among other ailments. In recent years, the increased demand has resulted in decline of natural populations and intensification of cultivation. Humans broke isolation barriers between species and selected a hybrid (toronjil blanco: A. mexicana subsp. xolocotziana) [morphological, chemical and molecular evidences presented here]. Because of its sedative properties of A. mexicana, consumption has generated international market; recently, it was included in the official Mexican Pharmacopeia and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. The attractive flowers are the basis for cultivating both wild species and horticultural hybrids as ornamental plants that provide food for pollinators.

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Friday)
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Solidarity, Allyship, & Justice in an "Applied" Ethnobiology, Part II

Biodiversity Center Rm B

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Chelsey Geralda Armstrong - Simon Fraser University
Alex McAlvay - University of Wisconsin, Madison

Ethnobiology is touted by many of its members as inherently applied towards social and environmental justice causes. The Society of Ethnobiology's (SoE) website greets visitors with a welcome stating, “We are a non-profit organization of scholars, activists and communities…” While many seasoned ethnobiologists in SoE have engaged their work with social and environmental application, early-career scholars have often wondered how they can increase the social and environmental applicability their own work, asking, “how can we be more applied” and “what are examples of an applied ethnobiology”? In the face of global climate change and on-going colonialism, we ask those who have engaged in applied ethnobiology or advocacy to explicitly outline how their work has contributed to issues of social and environmental justice, resource management, Indigenous solidarity and well-being, and/or other ends, and what tangible results their work has produced. By highlighting the applied work of multiple generations - from our Society’s elders to up-and-coming-scholars – we hope to open a dialogue on strategies and approaches for the future of an applied ethnobiology

Presentations

Time Abstract
10:30am
Author(s):
Baker
, Janelle - McGill University; Athabasca University

In this paper, I will reflect on my experience as an applied ethnobiologist and as a doctoral researcher in Alberta’s oil sands region. My inspiration for doctoral research was to dedicate the time, resources, and networks available through academia to investigate First Nations perspectives on wild food contamination; a topic being neglected in consultation and applied research. As I complete my PhD, I ask how my skills are best dedicated to meet the needs of the communities who house my work. I compare working on applied research projects that have the potential to support court cases and policy change with academic research and writing. I will examine who ultimately funds applied and academic research and whether any of this work could be valuable or useful to First Nations allies or whether it perpetuate imbalances in well-being and power. I conclude that relations of respect and reciprocity are of upmost importance.

10:45am
Author(s):
McAlvay
, Alex - University of Wisconsin-Madison

In the past several centuries the Wixáritari of western Mexico have defended their homeland, sacred desert, and pilgrimage route from mining, extraction of sacred plants by outsiders, and damming projects along major rivers. I present ongoing work done with the Wixáritari and the non-profit Herbal Anthropology Project to preemptively establish an Indigenous-run ethnobotanical herbarium to support land and intellectual property claims. I will also discuss general barriers I have faced to engaging in advocacy including: issues working abroad, reconciling roles and reputations of the "impartial" academic and the applied advocate, and navigating problematic colonial dynamics perpetuated as an applied researcher "helping" Indigenous peoples. Finally, I draw on insights from other applied social sciences, present a list of relevant resources for advocate-academics, and share questions provided by members of the Society of Ethnobiology about engaging in an ethical applied ethnobiology.

11:00am
Author(s):
Fowler
, Catherine S. - University of Nevada

In the 1990s, the Timbisha Shoshone Tribe began a struggle for land within and surrounding Death Valley National Park. This was capped by passage of the Timbisha Shoshone Homelands Act in 2000.  It granted the Tribe trust lands and the right to co-manage additional lands held by the National Park Service and the Bureau of Land Management. Applied ethnobiology was used during the negotiations to document the extent and uses of Timbisha traditional lands through ethnobotanical/ethnozoological, TREM and place name studies. The Tribe then initiated a pilot project to bring TREM back to their lands through a honey mesquite and pinyon pine management project, designed to demonstrate to the agencies the value of traditional care. The project was in place for two years when complications arose that could not be easily resolved. The case study outlines some of these, and how they contributed to an overall outcome.

11:15am
Author(s):
Armstrong
, Chelsey Geralda - Simon Fraser University

Northwest British Columbia is amidst a massive expansion in oil and gas exploration and export. Archaeological assessments are mandatory prior to infrastructure development like pipelines and processing plants. Most archaeological assessments near the Skeena River, home of Gitxsan and Tsimshian Nations, have been rote at best and have failed to consult the appropriate First Nations communities. This paper reviews two independent archaeological assessments conducted by the author, which cover the territory of Luutkuudiiwuz and Gitwilgyoots. It is widely recognized that the cultural landscape of these communities is much more extensive than the clearly visible archaeological record, however proponent-paid archaeologists recommend development based on reports which state neither community have sites on their territories worth protecting. Such archaeology effectively acts as handmaiden of development while neglecting important cultural heritage like place naming, oral stories and histories, social ecological features like forest gardens, and the larger spatial scales on which humans operate.

11:30am
Author(s):
Rapinski
, Michel - Université de Montréal and Université de Guyane
Sit
, Vanessa - Université de Montréal
Ouellet
, Caroline - Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)
Lamothe
, Lise - Université de Montréal
Saïas
, Thomas - Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)
Haddad
, Pierre - Université de Montréal
Davy
, Damien - Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
Cuerrier
, Alain - Université de Montréal

Type 2 diabetes in Canada’s indigenous communities is 3 to 5 times higher than the national average. Regardless of efforts to increase access to healthcare services, diabetes continues to disrupt health and quality of life. Because healthcare services are largely perceived as an occidental import, increased access to traditional medicine may increase treatment outcomes. Objectives were to define and highlight community representation of health and traditional medicine in contrast to local healthcare providers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two Québec First Nation communities. These were held with community members (knowledge keepers and healthcare service users) and healthcare providers (professionals and administrators). For community members, traditional medicine was identity-defining thus comprising language, culture and the land (i.e. plants, animals, water), whereas healthcare providers focused more on tangible aspects (i.e. medicinal plants, animals). Services could be culturally adapted, namely, through strengthening knowledge transfer in community networks and increasing land-based healing.

10:30am to 12:00pm
(Friday)
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The IPBES Global Assessment of Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services: Calling upon the contribution of Ethnobiology

Amphithéâter Henry-Teuscher

Session Description

Organizer(s): 
Zsolt Molnár MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary
Cynthia Zayas University of the Philippines, Philippines
Sandra Díaz National University of Cordoba, Argentina
Eduardo S. Brondízio Indiana University, US

The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) has started to prepare its Global Assessment of Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services. The >150 authors of the global assessment will consider three groups of questions related to ethnobiology, Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) and Indigenous and Local Knowledge, Practices and Innovations (ILKPIs).

First, what have been the contributions of ILKPs/IPLCs to the sustainable use, management and conservation of nature and Nature’s Benefits to People (NBP) at regional and global scales? This question is based on the accumulated evidence that ILKPIs are locally based, but regionally manifested, and globally relevant. Second, what are the most important features, pressures and factors related to and/or enabling these contributions, as well as impacting present and future NBP and quality of life of IPLCs? This question is based on accumulated evidence that IPLCs are at the centre of social, economic, political and environmental / ecological pressures, are largely marginalized, and experiencing high rates of social and environmental changes. And, third, what policy responses, measures, and processes can contribute to strengthen and improve the institutions and governance of nature and nature’s benefits to people with regard to ILKPI/IPLCs? This question will consider evidence from previous and ongoing policy efforts and instruments supporting ILKPI/IPLCs, and help to identify gaps and opportunities going forward.

The goal of the session is to present the strategy for integrating ILKPIs in the global assessment, to present the state of ILKPI-related activities in the global assessment, to encourage ethnobiologists to review the diverse drafts of the assessment, and potentially to serve as Contributing Authors where expertise is needed. The session will not be an official IPBES event but an initiative towards the fulfilment of our task to incorporate ILKPI as an integral part of the global assessment.

Presentations

Time Abstract
10:30am
Author(s):
Molnár
, Zsolt - MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary
Zayas
, Cynthia Neri - Center for International Studies, University of the Philippines, Diliman

IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) emphasizes the importance of strengthening dialogues and knowledge co-production between different knowledge systems. Ethnobiologists working together with indigenous peoples and local communities, and holders of traditional ecological knowledge were invited by the IPBES to work together in the assessments. This paper will introduce some of the key topics where ethnobiologists, TEK-holders and authors of the assessment would mutually benefit from knowledge co-production: What are the distinctive views of IPLCs regarding nature? What are the main changes and drivers affecting nature and nature’s benefits to people in areas managed by IPLCs? How have institutions and policy tools involving IPLCs contributed to the conservation of nature? What have been the impacts of ‘marine protected areas’ on IPLCs? What are the evidences for the effectiveness of conservation management strategies involving IPLCs (biocultural approaches, co-management systems)? We invite all conference participants to join our discussions.

10:45am
Author(s):
Bond
, Matthew - University of Hawai'i
Anderson
, Barbara J - Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua
Wehi
, Priscilla - Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua

The recent 2016 IUCN Congress in Honolulu, Hawaii, highlighted the inextricable linkages between culture and nature, and the threats that indigenous peoples face in a changing world. Climate change is a major threat facing us all, but as yet there is relatively little research on how biocultural systems will be affected by climate change. Here, we have integrated cultural context and harvesting practices with projected future species ranges that be used to develop collaborative management strategies to strengthen biocultural resilience to climate change. We focus on two New Zealand plant species that have high cultural value to the indigenous Maori people - a wetland sedge used for weaving that has a wide distribution, but distinct regional value; and a regionally distributed, but widely valued medicinal plant. These models should improve future biocultural assessments and could be used to help mitigate the effects of climate change on cultures globally.

11:00am
Author(s):
Ulicsni
, Viktor - Department of Ecology, University of Szeged, Hungary
Babai
, Dániel - MTA Research Centre for the Humanities, Institute of Ethnology, Hungary
Vadász
, Csaba - Kiskunság National Park, Hungary
Báldi
, András - MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary
Molnár
, Zsolt - MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary

Often zoologists cannot find the means of effective cooperation with traditional knowledge. They do not know which species they could expect to get relevant local knowledge about or which are suitable for knowledge co-production. To help bridge this gap, we examined 1) how accurately the 20 interviewed zoologists predicted the richness of local knowledge and 2) we developed a linear model, which estimated the proportion of local people who will know the species. We compared these data with our own data on local knowledge of about 410 wild animal species in Central European regions. The zoologists’ and the model’s estimates of knowledge have been ca. 60%, and 70 % correct, respectively. Tendencies show that zoologists’ accuracy has been decreased by undervaluation of local folklore and local usefulness and overvaluation of morphology. The model has also put too much emphasis on morphology, but it overemphasized size and abundance as well.

11:15am
Author(s):
White
, John - Tulane

The in situ conservation of genetically diverse crop wild relatives (CWR) is vital to the development of new crop varieties capable of satisfying the demands of Earth’s growing populations and changing agricultural conditions. Centers of CWR diversity commonly overlap with the territories of indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC). This has sometimes resulted in collaborative in situ conservation programs between CWR scientists and IPLC. Despite the recognized value of collaborating with IPLC in their roles as land users and owners, relatively few studies have explicitly investigated how in situ CWR conservation projects and policy designs may also benefit from the study and implementation of Indigenous Local Knowledge, Practices and Innovations (ILKPIs). Moreover, the ethical dimensions of such collaborations remain critically underexplored. In this discussion I seek to highlight the benefits of incorporating IPLC and ILKPI in CWR in situ conservation research while paying special attention to associated ethical issues.

11:30am
Author(s):
Brondizio
, Eduardo - Indiana University - Bloomington
Diaz
, Sandra - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba - Argentina
Settele
, Josef - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ - Germany
Members of the IPBES Secretariat, ILK Task Force, ILK GA Liaison group
, Various - Intergovernmental S-P Platform on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services (IPBES)

The global assessment (GA) of biodiversity and ecosystem services of the IPBES will critically assess the state of knowledge on past, present and possible future trends in multi-scale interactions between people and nature, while considering different knowledge systems. The GA includes land, inland waters, coastal zones and oceans and is timed to assess the current (2011-2020) and inform the next (2020-2030) generation of Strategic Plans for Biodiversity, and provide input to the SDGs. The proposed strategy to integrate ILK in the GA will be presented. The ILK-strategy will contribute to scale-up the contribution of ILK to regional and global environments and understand the impact of regional and global pressures upon them, and explore policy and governance options going forward. The presentation seeks inputs and calls on the ethnobiology community to contribute to the GA in multiple ways. Presented on behalf of the GA Co-Chairs, and multiple contributors to the GA.

12:00pm to 1:00pm
(Friday)
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Biodiversity Wood Room

Details

Immediately following the Friday morning session, The IPBES Global Assessment of Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services: Calling upon the contribution of Ethnobiology, we will hold a Lunch Forum to present the proposed strategy to operationalize indigenous and local knowledge in the Global Assessment. Participants will become knowledgeable about the ongoing global assessment and will have the opportunity to contribute to the report. We hope you will come to help represent the ethnobiology community and potentially collaborate in the process. A light lunch will be provided. 

12:15pm to 12:45pm
(Friday)
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Meet in Main Entrance Lobby
1:00pm to 2:00pm
(Friday)
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Poster Session

IRBV Classroom (3rd Floor Main Bldg)

Presentations

Time Abstract
1:00pm
Author(s):
Richards
, Shanee - University of the Virgin Islands
Barbier
, Faviola - University of the Virgin Islands
Briggs
, Cheynee - University of the Virgin Islands
Crawford
, Shadijah - University of the Virgin Islands
Esdaille-Carty
, Tamara - University of the Virgin Islands
Evans
, Regina - University of the Virgin Islands
Harrigan
, Denikah - University of the Virgin Islands
Jobsis-Rossignol
, Dylan - University of the Virgin Islands
Lawerence
, Meritzer - University of the Virgin Islands
Mitchell
, Oshana - University of the Virgin Islands
Morton
, Calwyn - University of the Virgin Islands
Otto
, Anisa - University of the Virgin Islands
Palanque
, Guerline - University of the Virgin Islands
Sango
, Bree - University of the Virgin Islands
Shaw
, Ryan - University of the Virgin Islands
Thomas
, Ashley - University of the Virgin Islands
Wyllie-Echeverria
, Sandy Ph.D - University of the Virgin Islands

We designed a research project to determine the extent of ethnobotanical knowledge of individuals living on St. Thomas in the U. S. Virgin Islands. First we collected, dried and preserved plant species, growing in the Cooperative Extension Orchard, University of the Virgin Islands. Species chosen are indigenous to St. Thomas and included Moringa oleifera, Manihot esculenta (cassava), Averrhoa carambola, Myrciaria floribunda and Manilkara zapota. Next, we created questionnaires informed by relevant literature from similar studies used to test the ethnobotanical knowledge of local residents at other locations. Following this we interviewed nineteen people ranging in age from 18 to 60+. One important finding was that there seems to be a positive correlation between age and ethnobotanical knowledge with older residents knowing more facts about plant species than those who are younger. From the data, we conclude that the people of St. Thomas may be experiencing cultural erosion of ethnobotanical knowledge.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Mustafa, Commodore, Liburd, Lanclos, Estrill, Scotland,Wyllie,Harmon, Brandy,Wyllie-Echeverria
, Haya, Nirisha,Keryl,Raiyna, Khadijah,Brianna,LouAnne,Ann,Yakini,Sandy - University of the Virgin Islands

Myrcianthes fragrans (Simpson’s stopper, Twinberry), a small tree or large shrub, grows in many tropical areas in the Caribbean and along the southern coast of Florida. This species is indigenous but rare on the island of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.  As part of an undergraduate research project we collected M. fragrans leaves on 21 November 2016. Then using a wet distillation process, we extracted hydrosol and essential oil from these leaves on 22 November.  The Essential Oil University, New Albany, Indiana, will analyze these natural products. After analysis we will 1) identify the concentration and composition of essential oil in our samples and 2) compare our results with previous work to extract natural products from M. fragrans growing in Costa Rica and Cuba.

 

Our work demonstrates the contribution of undergraduates in the search for antimicrobial properties as effective treatment for microbial diseases that are a global health threat.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Ducey
, Mark - University of New Hampshire
Colter
, R. Andy - USDA Forest Service and University of New Hampshire
Hoy
, Joann - Botanist, Auburn NH
Phillipe
, Jessica - USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

We conducted a botanical inventory of forest understories on the Wild Upper Ammonoosuc watershed in the White Mountains, a region inhabited by the Abenaki before European contact.  We used a stratified random sample across soil groups and management types, with additional plots to capture unusual ecological communities.  We explored hypotheses about species with documented ethnobotanical use:  Are such species associated with particular soil types, with recently disturbed forests, or forests with little or no recent timber management?  Of 190 taxa identified, 138 were associated in published databases with use by the Abenaki or by geographically proximate cultures.  Overall patterns of species richness between those with known uses and of all species combined were highly correlated.  Our results emphasize the degree to which the entire landscape offered potential resources.  A culturally informed approach to conservation can likely be approached through the diversity of plant communities, rather than a purely individual-species level.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Johnson
, Emily S. - Boston University
Marston
, John M. - Boston University

Within central Turkey, the site of Gordion has long been a major urban center, and was the capital of the Iron Age Phrygian kingdom. Recent excavations of a stratified pit in the elite core of the site revealed a large concentration of carbonized botanical remains and faunal material. Dating to the Early Phrygian period (800-700 BCE), these foods appear to have been consumed and discarded in a single event, followed immediately by the construction of buildings for elite use atop this trash deposit. Signaling a potential feasting deposit of ritual significance, eight diverse botanical samples are the focus of our analysis. As elite feasting has not yet been documented at Gordion, especially in coordination with monumental construction, multiple lines of evidence from this deposit provide an opportunity to explore how elite ritual dedications related to monuments were performed, in addition to providing insight into elite dining practices during public/ritual events.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Witeck
, Kayla

Plants of the Passiflora genus have impressed many people over time with their extravagant flowers. Europeans have valued the aesthetics of these plants for many years. Dating back even further, is the use by Native Americans for its medicinal properties as an anxiolytic and sedative and for its delicious fruits that were eaten as desserts. Today, the fruit of Passiflora edulis are a unique crop and serve as a $16 million industry in Australia. This angiosperm has been documented in North America to have very important and unique coevolving mutualistic relationships with its butterfly pollinator species, Heliconius spp. Due to the nature of this plant-pollinator ecology, this economic crop has very specific pollinator requirements. This relationship has great potential to answer some very important questions about pollinating insects and the plants they inhabit. This research could give insight to other plant and pollinator relationships and the issues they face today.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Ruggiero
, Juliet - University of the Virgin Islands
Wyllie-Echeverria
, Sandy - University of Washington

In fall semesters of 2015 and 2016, we designed a course to acquaint students with the blend of botanical and socio-cultural perspectives integral to Ethnobotanical Investigation. Each year we focused on the theory, history and method that sets Ethnobotany apart as a science and then guided students in an Ethobotanical Practicum with the objective of introducing a real world example of ethnobotanical research.  In both years the quality of student research was exemplary and there are plans afoot to publish methods, findings and implication.

To determine the success of our approach we developed assessment tools such as pre-semester and post-semester exams focused on the same set of questions, analysis of responses to essay questions crafted to measure a student’s understanding of ethnobotanical rigor, and evaluation of oral presentation by a student and teams of students.  Herein we explain our approach and results of our assessment metrics in more detail.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Pangging
, Govinda - NERIST, Deemed University, India
Sharma
, Chaman Lal - NERIST, Deemed University
Sharma
, Madhubala - NERIST, Deemed University

The present study was carried out in Dhemaji, Lakhimpur and Biswanath districts of Assam for documentation, valuation, and prioritization of the plant species used in the magico-religious practices of the Deori tribe. A total of 71 species and 3 cultivars of Musa sp. with 62 genera belonging to 34 families were documented. Poaceae was the dominant family among all reported families. The documented plants were categorized into six categories. Maximum plants species were used in ceremony category (63.5%) followed by festival (33.8%), taboos (17.6%), rites (12.2%), magical belief (9.5%), etc. The quantitative analysis was done by using various ethnobotanical indices. Brassica juncea was ranked 1st in Cultural Importance Index (CI) (3.88), followed by Eupatorium cannabinum (2.18), Mangifera indica (2.13), etc. The significant difference in plant knowledge was observed between male and female members in ceremonies category only.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Arbogast
, Drew - The Ohio State University
Arnold
, Julia - The Ohio State University
Buffington
, Abigail - The Ohio State
Weiland
, Andrew - The Ohio State University

Phytoliths, amorphous opal silica bodies that form in plant tissues, are assumed to be stable components of a soil matrix, impacted little by normal physical forces. However, there is a small chance of phytoliths moving in a laboratory setting, especially after they have been isolated from other materials such as clay, organics and carbonates and when multiple samples are being processed. We designed a study to test the potential of cross-contamination in phytolith research. We examined the variable of distance as it relates to contamination on slides in different locations of the phytolith laboratory. The results of our study inform on how we can improve on phytolith processing protocols to reduce the potential effect of cross-contamination between samples.

1:00pm
Author(s):
O'Sullivan
, Megan - Southern Utah University
Olson
, Liz - Southern Utah University
Gines
, Madeline - Southern Utah University
Lamers
, Hannelore - Southern Utah University
Ludlow
, Sara - Southern Utah University
Karpinski
, Christina - Southern Utah University
Rose
, Grace - Southern Utah University

Hunger in the United States is an issue that is increasing despite the abundance of the world we live in. We are concerned that poor nutrition and food habits can have on physical and cognitive development and future food habits. We wanted to understand how these habits might be impacting our local community and attempt to identify resources that might be able to fill the knowledge and practices gap. We asked 137 local elementary school parents about their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to food and nutrition. It is our belief that the results of this survey are critical for identifying issues where knowledge can be increased and practices can be improved. Our results provided a fundamental understanding of the community’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices of nutrition and allow for customized research-based solutions to local problems of hunger and nutrition. Possibly through farm to school lunch programs and teaching gardens.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Wright
, Roy - Concordia University, Montreal

Traditional ethnobotanical taxonomy, here of conifers among Iroquoians and Algonquians of the Northeast Woodlands, is shown in their indigenous-language names, presented and analyzed here as attested in many dictionaries and word lists, and the following primary sources: (1536) Jacques Cartier described the conifer Annedda whose infusion cured his scurvy; Rousseau 1954 discusses its contentious identity. (1748-51) Pehr Kalm traveled in North America, noting new species with some indigenous names; English edition 1770, Dover reprint 1966. Kalm's manuscript Canadian journal is copiously annotated and translated in Rousseau 1977. (1910s) F.W. Waugh conducted ethnobotanical field work, partly published in his 1916 Iroquois Use of Foods. (1930s) William Fenton made ethnobotanical field notes with Iroquois indigenous names, still unpublished and accessible only in the doctoral dissertation of James Herrick, cited from the University Microfilm edition. Ethnohistorical references: Charlotte Erichsen-Brown's 1979 source book "Uses of Plants..", Dover reprint 1989.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Wade
, Kali - Boston University
Shillito
, Lisa-Marie - University of Edinburgh
Bonsall
, Clive - University of Edinburgh

This work addresses prehistoric activity and fuel use at the multi-period occupancy site of Williamson’s Moss, Cumbria, England, through phytolith analysis. Microbotanical investigations contribute to the larger Eskmeals Project, a multidisciplinary endeavor exploring Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age populations around the River Esk Estuary. These findings offer comparative and collaborative information to previous pollen analysis regarding activity use and paleoenvironment at Williamson’s Moss. Large quantities of microcharcoal, diatoms, and sponge spicules indicate periods of burning and flooding at the site. Samples derive from a Mesolithic trackway and Bronze Age hearth, offering the potential to examine spatial activity areas, plant utilization regarding fuel use and, due to samples’ contextual origins, effectiveness of phytolith analysis from archived bulk samples. Analysis of phytoliths from British soil is uncommon and one that contributes not only to the field of phytolithology but to a deeper understanding of Williamson’s Moss.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Kachko
, Liza - Independent Researcher
Dardar
, Theresa - Pointe au Chien Indian Tribe

Pointe-au-Chien Indian Tribe is situated “at the end of the world” off the brackish waters of Louisiana’s Gulf Coast. The coastal community has been heavily impacted by coastal erosion and land loss affecting their ability to remain in the place they have lived for generations. As the communities’ very existence is threatened so are the many plants that were once relied upon for traditional medicine and food. The community is working to address this loss by building a medicinal plant 'garden', raised high off the ground to protect the plants from storm surge and encroaching salinity. Tribal members are working with elders to document and record traditional plant knowledge and pass it on to younger generations, utilizing the 'garden' as the center for sharing and keeping traditions and significant plant species.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Cannon
, Carrie - Hualapai Tribe

The Hualapai Department of Cultural Resources is implementing a mulit-year vegetation restoration project at two sites in the Western Grand Canyon on the Hualapai Indian Reservation. This poster will present about the ecological benefits of conducting riparian restoration.  The project is taking place at an opportune time given the current demise of the invasive tamarisk along the Colorado River Corridor due to the introduction of the tamarisk beetle.  The project provides an opportunity to reintroduce native species and integrate Traditional Ecological Knowledge in resource management decisions.  From a Hualapai Tribal perspective, the promotion of native plants that are also used culturally for food, medicine, materials, and ceremony, additionaly contibutes to the overall ecological health of the landscape.

1:00pm
Author(s):
Hamersley Chambers
, Fiona - University of Victoria

This research investigates traditional berry resource management practices in Heiltsuk territory on British Columbia's Central coast with the goals of identifying and studying this not yet recognized management system, and working collaboratively with the Hieltsuk to address their identified issues of food security/sovereignty and ethnoecological restoration.

6:00pm (Friday)
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Planetarium

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Banquet Tickets »

On Friday evening, conference registrants and guests will gather for a special banquet. The banquet will be held at the Montreal Planetarium and will feature the 2017 Distinguished Ethnobiologists Steven Weber and Steven Emslie, the co-founders of our Society. We will conclude the evening with a Haudenosaunee social dance with Kaniehkeshon.

Saturday, May 13, 2017

9:00am to 4:00pm
(Saturday)
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Departing from the Hôtel Universal at 9:00am to go to Parc des Chutes de Sainte-Ursule

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A mushroom walks into the Ethnobiology Club… Finally a FUNGI to brighten the mood! Go mushroom picking with le Cercle des mycologues de Montréal in some of southern Québec’s forests. Springtime is the season for morels: spot them, pick them, eat them! If you’re not so lucky, not to worry, the forest yields many other tasty delights.

In this workshop, participants will visit the Fungarium, situated at the Montréal Botanical Gardens, where the Cercle des mycologues keep mushroom vouchers. Then, participants will be taken by bus to two sites, the furthest of which is about 115km from the city. Participants will learn about the vegetation and mushrooms unique to each site, and then will have the opportunity to walk around freely and harvest their own mushrooms. After each collection, participants display their mushrooms, and the event facilitator shares his knowledge about the mushrooms. Participants get to keep edible mushrooms!

The tour will end around 3pm in order to return the participants to the Hôtel Universel around 4pm.

9:30am to 4:00pm
(Saturday)
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Pick up at Hôtel Universel, travel to Kahnawà:ke

Details

Participants will be picked up by bus at the Hôtel Universel on Saturday morning, May 13th, at 9:30 am. We will drive to Mohawk Trail Longhouse in Kahnawà:ke, located on the south shore across from Montréal, where we will listen to traditional teachings presented by ceremonialist and teacher Kevin Deer (Wolf Clan, Kahnawà:ke). We will have lunch at the Longhouse, and then will visit black ash basket maker Richard Nolan (Turtle Clan, Kahnawà:ke) where he will talk about the process of Black Ash basket making, and display some of his baskets for purchase. Before heading back to Montréal, we will stop at the Wolf's Den gift shop where participants can purchase Mohawk crafts and souvenirs. The bus will bring everyone back to Hôtel Universel, to arrive around 4 pm.